Class Notes (808,649)
Canada (493,322)
History (3,202)
HIS103Y1 (431)
Denis Smyth (169)

HIS103 13. The Diplomatic Revolution

8 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto St. George
Denis Smyth

October 24, 2012 The Diplomatic Revolution Key words Notes: 1756: brought about a revolution in  1756: one of the most important diplomatic events of that year the international politics. It brought and that time. Brought in a stunning realignment of the great forth an alliance between two bitter powers that many had taken granted. It changed something that enemies. had been going on for no less then 200 years.  A Hapsburg bourbon competition. A conflict between the two dynasties that most diplomats and states had taken for granted. And yes, inn 1756 saw a realignment of interests and a termination in the conflict between the two ruling dynasties. A competition that most states took for granted. This conflict was resolved through the diplomatic revolution.  What prompted two enemies who had been at each others throats for two centuries, killing each other. Fighting for supremacy in Europe to put aside that tremendous difference  Aix la chapelle settled most of the between the two and make up an alliance. conflict but there were many  With the Treaty of Aix-la-chapelle the great powers settled their disappointments. differences over the War of Austrian Succession.  The great powers settled their differences with the Austrian  Austria was disappointed because succession. This is not to say that all aspects of the conflict were it had lost Silesia. settled. As it happens with most major treaties there are many disappointments.  With the gain of Silesia, the  Aix-la-Chapelle treaty resulted in Austria being humiliated prestige of Prussia was boosted. because it was unable to recover Silesia. It was the Northern most provinces that remained in Prussian hands. That province was perhaps the richest province of the Hapsburg Empire.  Fredrick gained an incredible asset and elevated the prestige of Prussia.  Marie Theresa could not stomach this. Fredrick and Maria Theresa hated one another. They were distant relatives, but still hated each other. Furthermore, with Fredrick taking over Silesia was something that Maria Theresa wasn’t ever going to forgive Fredrick.  She planned and schemed ways to recapture and regain Silesia.  Subsequent to the signing of the However, it is important to note that there was more than just Treaty of Aix la chapelle, Austrians personal desire to recover Silesia. The minute the Treaty of Aix la had to consider their relations with Chapelle was signed in 1748 the Austrians were compelled to the rest of the continent.  The Austrian Council was mostly reassess their foreign policy. They had to reconsider their composed of Maria Theresa and relations with the rest of the continent. Above all their own allies.  In this case we end up with Maria and Kauntiz and they provided Kauntiz. some of the best Austrian consul  It is quite unfortunate for the Hapsburg Empire being partial of European diplomacy. It was not served well by monarchs, weather queens or kings. In this case we end up with two bright individuals. Maria Theresa and Kauntiz were bright. So provided some of the best council ever to the Austrian reigning queen.  Kauntiz proposes that they let go  Kauntiz realized that there were problems when he looked at the of the Austrian Netherlands treaty of Aix la Chapelle. The first thing he realized that there was - Though the distance between a major mistake in the Austrian succession vis-a-vie the the two wasn’t that great there Hapsburg Empire and its territories. were many hostile German - What he identified as a sore point in the Austrian foreign states in between. policy was that the Austrian Netherlands are actually very - It wouldn’t be run efficiently in difficult to defend. Obviously the distance between Austria terms of economic, trade and and Austrian Netherlands was large. And in many ways finances. All trade was passed problems as that of the Spanish inheritance. (Spain was through Dutch Republic before buckling under and being considered to be divided almost all it went to Austria. the great powers, the Spaniards, British and the French at one - The Austrians had to pay the moment offered to the Austrians all the overseas parts of the Dutch safeguard the garrisons, Spanish Empire to which the Austrians turned down. They which acted as a buffer zone said it was totally useless for them since they were lacking a between France and Austria. navy and administration there. It would be hard to run those provinces and colonies. It was useless to Vienna.) What Vienna had wanted was territories close to Austria. To incorporate them administratively, bureaucratically and run them efficiently. - In many ways Kauntiz argued the same dilemma existed with the Austrian Netherlands. The distance that much, but in between the two there are many hostile German states. Practically Bavaria. Making the contact between Austria and the Austrian Netherlands very hard. - Moreover, he argued that no efficient administration could be run actively in terms of economics, finances and trade. Basically this is the essence of territories. They are supposed to bring in money to your state. - In terms of all of those, Kauntiz argued, the Austrian Netherlands was closer tied to the Dutch republic by the Treaty of Utrecht of 1730. All Trade had to pass through the Dutch Republic and not to the Hapsburg Empire. So in many ways all economic activity in the Netherlands benefited the Dutch Republic. Clearly this was unsuitable to a great power like Austria. - To make it profitable for themselves, the Austrians have to pay for the Dutch garrison safeguarding the buffer zone between France and the Dutch Republic. - At the cost of Vienna, the Austrians had to pay the Dutch to  Kauntiz Three Crucial points: man those garrisons 1. Netherlands were a black hole  Kauntiz Three Crucial points: for finances and a burden - The Austrian Netherlands was a black hole in the Hapsburg 2. Had been the reason Austria Empire. A drain in the Hapsburg finances. Or as he told Maria had gone to war 3 times in the Theresa, it was “A liability rather then an asset.” past 50 years - After all, for those lands Austrian entered into a war with 3. It was difficult to administer France no less then 3 times in the past 50 years. and internationally Austria - So its difficult to run, difficult to administer, no profit, have to had to defend it. pay, and are obliged internationally to defend it. 4. The British didn’t really care - It also brings them into a conflict with another great power about the Austrian national and it always will remain a drain on Hapsburg finances. interest.  This was only one part of Kauntiz analysis. He went further and brought up an idea that shocked Maria.  He argued that if the Austrian Netherlands lengths are useless to  So Kauntiz proposed to give it to us why not get rid of them? France.  Why not get rid of them in such a way that is to benefit Austria. We wont just sell it off, but to offer to them to the very state that is most keenly interested in gaining those-France.  Kauntiz Proposal and reasons - Since we can’t defend them and cost the Austrian so much, why not get rid of them by offer them to France. Louis XIV started 3 wars for the same land. Back then it was the Spanish Netherlands. This is the land the France wants. To the French this was a national security. - Immediately we will get rid of the great threat to the Habsburg Empire. And that is imperial France-the Bourbon Dynasty. The minute you offer it to them there would never be a reason for the French and the Hapsburg to come to a conflict. - Kauntiz further argued that the British actually did not care about the Austrian National interest. This was obvious in the treaty of Aix la Chapelle, because they had compelled Maria to give up Silesia, the most important thing she wanted. And the Italian territories and the evacuation of Bavaria during the Austrian Succession war. Kauntiz argued that if the British id care about the Austrian interest they would have never compelled them to do so. - They would give money to Austria only on the condition that Austria make personal deal with Fredrick. The same Fredrick who stole Silesia. Britain did not care about the Austrian interest. They were only concerned with their own interest and to make sure that France was tied down on the continent by fighting the Austrians. Thus leading a free hand for the British to explore overseas. - Their intentions of isolating Fredrick. Of making sure that Fredrick would have no more allies on the continent. This
More Less

Related notes for HIS103Y1

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.