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HIS103 16. The Congress of Vienna and the Congess system to the concert of Europe PART II.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Denis Smyth

The congress of Viena and the congress system Key words Notes  The Congress of Vienna  There would be no free for all for any great power. All great powers, established a great power system for a century after 1815 would be the first all embracive break which confined and limited the many down in the great power system established by congress of Vienna subsequent wars. and the statesmen who participated. There would be wars, although they were all-important, were still contained, limited, and confined within the Framework of the system established in 1814-1815. There are no more remarkable phenomena in terms of peacemaking, system building or international order construction better than the example of Congress of Vienna.  The Primary treaty of Vienna was  One primary settlement made during the Vienna Congress 0f 1814- a territorial one. It sought to contain 1815 was a territorial one. Certainty largely designed to contain any France and any future aggression outbreaks or reemergence of a French champion to reestablish the that may arise from post-Napoleonic order. The buffer states established alongside France frontiers to France. the - Establishment of buffer zones to - Northeast unified kingdom of the low countries (Holland act as shock absorbers. Belgium were joined for at least a decade and a half) - Establishment of Unified - Prussian power, which was expanded and strengthen in the Northeast Kingdom (Holland neighborhood. and Belgium) - Northern Italy, traditional French expansion ground, was - Northeastern establishment of a carefully territorially balanced to contain France through the regional balance of power kingdom of Sardinia and Piedmont-northwestern Italy as any through the establishment of shock absorber. Furthermore it was backed by Austria. kingdoms of Sardinia and - Austria was heavily restored as the great power in northern Peidmount Italy. Not only with its traditional province of Lombardy, but - Austria was given Lombardy, also given a northeastern Italian province of Venetia. All to back and Venetia to back Sardinia if up Sardinia as a barrier against future aggression and challenge any challenges arose. to the revived international order.  Austria were to become too bigheaded or too powerful, Piedmont and Sardinia were also well aware it had to remember that it needed British naval power to survive. So there was local balance of powers that contributed to the overall functioning international system.  Equally it was necessary to check and contain the Russian power.  The Perturbatory Powers: term Although it was part of European coalition that had defeated coined by Metternich to countries napoleon, they were also what Metternich referred as “The that were/had: Perturbatory Powers”. Along with France, Metternich argued, - Defeated Napoleonic France especially in his dialogue with the Castlereagh, that ultimately there - Were on the rise as great power were two sources of historic challenge to International order and states and were challenging an stability in Europe. threatening to other states. - France to West - Were always seeking ways to - Russia to the east expand their territories - Were considered the Perturbatory Powers: powers that were - Metternich also argued that restless and always wanted to expand. They were dynamically France was becoming a challenging and threatened the powers that other states wanted perturbatory power. to enjoy the quite life and sustain peace.  Vienna Settlement tried to solve - So the Vienna Settlement had not only contained future French the problem of perturbatory powers aggression, but also guarded against Russian domination over by containing Russia in the east and the system. France in the west.  This territorial settlement was a solid base which they built the existing order. It I also true that the material foundation, the geographical location situation of peoples and states isn’t a self- sufficient explanation of who rises, who falls and what makes history really move. It is ultimately the human factor. The decision of policy makers and give it a political system, that ultimate determine war and peace.  In order to facilitate the kind of cooperation and collaboration, and to facilitate and encourage the emergence of necessary collaboration and cooperation, in the end systemic concusses necessary to underpin a functioning international order. In order to achieve that critical breakthrough, coinocoually building of law and order between and amongst nations, it was necessary, for the statesmen gathered at Vienna also to turn their mind to institutions. To some mechanism, to some administrative arrangements to nurture their embryonic order into existence and into a functioning form.  The primary institutional arrangement suggested, and this was one that would naturally out rule their experiences in fighting napoleon, this was an institutional mechanism. This was an institution heavily championed by Castlereagh. He noted that many of the problems that had threaten to spilt the coalition had been resolved, settled or reclosed by person to person negotiations. Individual states were  Castlereagh noted that most coming together and thrashing them out in person. conflicts in the past had been  He took that as a model of paradigm for the mechanism that he resolved either between powers or thought might serve best to maintain that international unity in on an individual level. So he Peace as it had ultimately held it together in war. suggested an institution where  By article six of the Quadruple alliance, treaty of Defensive Alliance everyone could gather and sort out nov 1815”…the high contracting parties have agreed to renew their every problem. meetings at fixed periods… for the purpose of consulting upon their - Under article 6 of the Defensive common interest and…for the maintenance of the peace of Europe”. Alliance treaty such an idea was That article founded the congress system. bought to light. - The whole of the periodic congresses, at which the rulers of the - A European congress was European great powers, or their primary representatives, (e.g formed to maintain international Castlereagh for Britain,) unity and peace. - The rulers themselves and forgien ministers would attend these  Congress (institution) periodic gathering to confront ant inevitable challenges that - Rulers or their representatives would gather and confront the would emerge over the future years, sooner or later to the hierarchy of power and structure of authority settled by the challenges that might have congress of Vienna. emerged.  Initially, the congress system seemed dead. Three years passed by without anyone really getting togther. There were some bilateral  Years passed and no one really meetings, but later 1817, but it was clear that something needed to gathered at the Congress. Meanwhile be done to deal with emerging challenges to the existing order. challenges still arose in Europe. One  One such challenge came from France. France had been defeated, such challenge was France. military occupied and about to be presented by a major financial bill - Huge financial bill from war done by the Napoleonic wars. France was restless under foreign - Military occupied dictator and occupation. - Under foreign rule  The commander of the international force now occupying the major cities in France, The British hero of the Napoleonic wars-the Duke of Wellington won over, not only his own government, but the chancelleries of the other great European powers that French opinion was becoming decisive at the allies because of the ongoing  Duke of Wellington: military occupation. - British war Hero - Wellington said the best thing for the future security of Europe - Suggested that they end military was to get out of France immediately. occupation of France because it - A continuing military presence would only provoke the local was becoming bitter towards people and not likely actually revive any real real security for them them. - More other alienated France the more likely it was to become  Two challenges for the Congress once more a dynamic challenge to the order and stability and - An agitated France peace in Europe. - An overeager Russia  This was enough of a problem for Vienn
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