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HIS103 21. Napoleon II and the wars of Italian unifications & The Wars of the Geman Unification PART II

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Denis Smyth

Napoleon II and the wars of Italian unifications Jan 21, 2013 Key Words Notes  The Italian National  Italian national unification. Better perhaps the Italian national movement. movement. The so-called de-revitalization of the sense of collective identity part of the Italian people. Had that phenomena escaped the leash, which Napoleon III and France  Napoleon had done a deal tied to harness for their own particular foreign policy purposes, with Cavour to quash Austria the unification wouldn’t occur. and to reorganize Italy into four  Napoleon III had done a deal with the Piedmont Statesmen kingdoms Count Cavour precisely to promote the expansion of Piedmont - Expanded Piedmont across Italy to bring about the expulsion of the dominant - Kingdom of Central Italy existing power within the Italian peninsula, the Hapsburg- - Papal State Austrian Empire. To reorganize Italy into four separate - Kingdom of Naples kingdoms. - An expanded Piedmont. - The Kingdom of Central Italy. - The existing Papal states - The existing Kingdom of the two Sicily in the south- otherwise known as the Kingdom of Naples.  Napoleons plan was to divide  These four medium sized states would be a gesture towards them into smaller kingdoms be Italian national consolidation. So Napoleon III could pose as a their champion while promising champion of the Italian national movement. If these states were to protect them against any set up that would mean considerable territorial consolidation future Austrian aggression- under the French forces. As we saw in the war of 1859, which there for making them satellite the French and the Piedmonts fought the Austrians. But the kingdoms. states would also be dependent upon France for future protection against a revengeful Austria. This was the ideal  However there was an outcome. Napoleon III posing as the champion, however at the uprising and revolution erupted same time lording over Italy and bringing it under the French across the states. Middle class sphere of national influence. Italians led revolutions once  The one part Napoleon III hadn’t calculated on interfering in the they saw that the Austrians process was Italian people. More specifically, the middle class were beat by the French. This Italians nationalists, agitators or supporters. They proceeded to drove the French to quickly sign undermine his project under the influence of his victory over the on to a unilateral armistice with Austrians, the … of Solferino of 1859, ran revolutions across the the Austrians. country. Upper Tuscany, Parma, and Modena. They lead popular movements that over threw the puppet Austrian rulers of those days. They forced through referenda and joined their territories to the kingdom of Piedmont. This was the reason why Napoleon  Garibaldi: professional, and a III stopped dead in his tracks at the point of military victory over committed life-long democrat the Austrians in July 1859. He called for a unilateral armistice and republican revolutionary. with Austria, ignoring Piedmont, and left them in charge of - He was a citizen of Nice. Venetia, Northeastern Italy. However, he as powerless to stop - When he heard that the Piedmont expansion southward. Peidmont was to going to  It was clear that there was a dynamic in the move. Especially give Nice to the French he when more professional radical elements came to the move. One wasn’t happy. of these was Garibaldi. Garibaldi was a professional, and a - He used the growting Italian committed life-long democrat and republican revolutionary and national movement and the social and rural rebellions to one aspect of the deal done by Cavour with Napoleon III particular annoyed him. Garibaldi was a citizen of Nice. And his favor. Even though napoleon III hadn’t delivered on this full promise to - He gathered volunteers for the Piedmonts, Cavour cleverly realized that one way of the invasion of Sicily. reconciling with Napoleon III for an expanded Piedmont was to - Him and his army, give him Savoy and Nice. This had been part of the pre-war Garibaldi’s Red Shirts, were Piedmont promise in return of the French military services. This given rusty muskets, no was the traditional heartland of the Savoy monarchy. Cavour ammunitions and a bad insisted that the reluctant Piedmonts sanction the transfer of boat. Nice and Savoy, not withstanding the fact that Napoleon III had - After Garibaldi won the fully delivered on his side of the bargain. victory against the Sicilians  As this deal was proposed to the parliament of the Piedmonts in on May 15, 1860. the spring of 1860, even before it was fully ratified by them in - Seeing this more people June, Garibaldi decide to seize upon the growing dynamic Italian joined his army. national movement and also exploit the fact that social and rural - August 19 1860 Garibaldi’s rebellion had broken out within the kingdom of Naples. In the army marched northward. island of Sicily there was considerable forcible resistance to the - His plan was to liberate the land owners to enclose lands. This had provoked a sporadic Kingdom of Naples, have a peasant revolt, which was also fed by traditional Sicilian unified Italy, and invade separatism. With that problem already Garibaldi decide to move. Rome, the Papal States, the He appealed to volunteers to join him in an invasion of Scicley. Austrian occupied land and  It was such a crazy project and obviously disapproved of by the French in Nice. Cavour, not only of patriotic reasons, but also because the French wouldn’t hear of it, that only a few people responded to the cause. Only the most socially alienated and irresponsible people responded, namely the undergraduate students. 1000 or less gathered. They wore multicolored shirts, more were wearing red so the name Garibaldi’s Red shirts. Cavour made sure that they only had rusty muskets; no ammunition and they set sail in a very bad boat. They managed to eluded the Piedmont’s navy and take up arms from fellow Italians from Tuscany. They landed in Sicily on May 11, 1860. They sent a small detachment to Garibaldi’s army and Garibaldi’s red shirts routed them on the 15 of May 1860. Thousands of peasants volunteered joined the army. Within weeks Garibaldi had captured the main town of Sicily, Palermo and was now threatening to cross the strait to southern Italy.  Cavour still did everything possible to quarantine this spontaneous movement, which escaped not only Napoleon III control now, but also Cavour. Bth nothing could stop Garibaldi and his thousands. On the 19 August 1960 they crossed the narrow strait and marched northward. Garibaldi announced it to be his intention of liberating the kingdom of Naples, and joining it to unified Italian states, he announced that he was planning on invading the Papal states, the city of Rome, and continue northward to oust the Austrian and even attack the French in Nice.  Napoleon III had an idea. He  Napoleon III appealed to the other powers in a great congress to wanted all the main powers to settle the Italian question once and for all. come together to settle the - The Austrians refused to attend knowing that it could only Italian question. However, he end with them being rejected. The Austrians said no. realized that this wouldn’t - The Russians were quite happy, after Austrians desertion of work. the Crimean war they found no favors from the Russians. - Austria didn’t want to - The British on the whole were on for Italian unity. The attend because they were British were always ready for unity as long as it was far away aware of the fact they’d get from their land. the British were on Italian unity as a whole. rejected and they’d have  Napoleon III realizing his project wouldn’t fly was not prepared territorial loss. to look upon a further Piedmont expansion less undesirable as - The Russians were willing republican (Garibaldi) hijacking the Italian national movement. - The British were willing So he kept his peace when on the 15 of September 1860 the army of the Kingdom of Piedmont invaded the Papal States from  So Napoleon instead decided the north. As one foreign commentator observed, Cavour was to ally himself up with motivated not by acquiring more provinces, his aim was to stop Piedmont-Sardinia. Garibaldi. That was acceptable in the heel of the hunt by Napoleon III. He had to say yes to this Piedmont move even if it was with a sour face and gritted teeth. October 1860:  On October 1 , 1860 Garibaldi’s force with superb tactically was - October 1 : Garibaldi’s utterly defeat against 50,000 defending the capital city of the forces move to defeat at Kingdom of Naples. All Italy and a large part of Europe held its Kingdom of Naples breath as Garibaldi’s force-marched northward and met the th - October 26 : key encounter Piedmont forces marching south. between Garibaldi and - The key encounter came on October 26, 1860 when King Victor Emanuel. Garibaldi victor Emanuel of Piedmont met Garibaldi in person. hands over his territorial - Although republican in most ways, Garibaldi hailed king gains and a referendum is Emanuel Victor as all king. He was not prepared to shed held. Within months the Italian blood for his republican ideals. Kingdom of Italy is unified - He handed over his territorial conquest and within a short with Emanuel victor as king. time a referenda were held which produced suspicious large majority in favor of Southern unification with the King of  March 1861: The Kingdom of Piedmont. The kingdom of all Italy was proclaimed in March Italy under the rule of King 1861. victor Emanuel is born. - In terms of Italian unity this enforced over fast-accelerated process of Italian unification and this was something of an Italian tragedy. Even today the scenes of the Italian state tend to come apart somewhere around middle of Italy. There is still considerable rivalry and you can feel the separatist tensions. - All this because of the rather oppressed and forced conquest of the south by the north.  For the rest of Europe it was still unclear about the ultimate fall out or results from this rapid construction of a potential great
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