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Denis Smyth (169)


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Denis Smyth

Statecraft & Strategy: An Introduction to the History of International Relations 09/09/2013▯ ▯ •Course Syllabus▯ •Weekly Tutorial Schedule of Topics & Readings▯ •1 Term Lecture Outlines▯ •1 Term Course Bibliography▯ •1 Term Essay Titles▯ ▯ Final Exam Structure:▯ ▯ Part A:▯ Discussion of a general statement▯ ▯ Part B:▯ Material covered in the first part of the course (1648-1815)▯ •8-10 questions choose one▯ •look at tutorial themes every week▯ •essay for first term should provide answer in this section▯ ▯ Part C:▯ Material covered in second part of the course (1815-1945)▯ •essay for second term should provide answer in this section▯ ▯ ~▯ ▯ The beginning of International Order▯ •Peace of Westphalia ▯ •18th Century Balance of Power ▯ •Destroyed by the start of the French Revolutions▯ ▯ Mechanism of the Balance of Power:▯ June 6th 1944: Allied Troops stormed German-occupied France. ▯ FDR Defined the purpose of the Allies as “Nothing less than the ▯ ▯ 09/11/13▯ ▯ Ötzi (Ice Man)▯ •Approx. %75 of ancient, male humans discovered across the globe have been found Today, approx. %2 of human males today die from human violence▯ ▯ Reason:▯ The emergence of the concept of a sovereign state▯ government▯ •law & order▯ ▯ Statecraft & Strategy: An Introduction to the History of International Relations Therefore, central governments must have met or satisfied the basic needs of their people.▯ Basic Needs, Such As:▯ •Shelter▯ater▯ •A Sense of Security▯ ▯ The need for personal security, above all, was what the sovereign state did best at ensuring.▯ •Extending the rule of law via militia, etc.▯ ▯ However, the sovereign state itself is a living organism, with its own demands and needs.▯ • diplomatic▯ •economic▯ •cultural▯ •national security▯ ▯ The overriding goal of the “great game” of international politics is survival of the state.▯ •The state must not only protect its people, but also the way in which its people were collected.▯ ▯ States that fail to preserve to their collective security, are cast aside by their own people.▯ At one point, the only threats to national security came from either land or sea. (A 2- Dimensional Threat)▯ ▯ With the advent of the airplane, the threat became 3-dimensional.▯ ▯ Into the 21st century a fourth threat to national security came from cyberspace.▯ ▯ 4 Basic Threats to National Security:▯ •Land▯ •Sea▯ •Air▯ •Cyber▯ ▯ The Fundamental Definition of a Sovereign State:▯ One whose people have given it the authority to make peace or war.▯ ▯ “War ends nothing, war cures nothing, war solves nothing.”▯ - Neville Chamberlain▯ ▯ Yet, just as peace is a means to and end, so too is war.▯ Statecraft & Strategy: An Introduction to the History of International Relations Preference of peace is what nearly allowed the Nazi Empire to conquer the war. ▯ •Without intervention, oppression can run rampant.▯ ▯ Across the globe, the problem of international relations between inherently warring states, was solved by the empire.▯ •The Celestial Empire (Chinese)▯ • Conquered much of Eastern Asia▯ • Refused to acknowledge equality of other sovereign states.▯ ▯ Many European empires that would emerge would refuse to acknowledge the equality of neighboring sovereign states.▯ In order to limit the competition of European nations and powers was the mechanism of international relations.▯ ▯ 18th Century Balance of Power▯ •The first instance of possible cooperation between European powers.▯ ▯ Enlightenment of International Politics:▯ The pursuit of one’s own national interests had to be restrained by the need to ensure the survival of other powers (even rival powers), because it was the survival of those other powers in organized numbers which constituted the ultimate guarantee of one own’s state’s survival. Individual powers were always vulnerable, but collective powers, who pooled their resources and fought for one another could preserve their individual ▯ntities.▯ “Today the world’s nations are interdependent, like mountain climbers on one rope: they can either climb together to summit, or fall together into the abyss.” ▯ - Mikhail Gorbachev▯ ▯ Precisely because they are so self-interested, they ultimately end up cooperating.▯ ▯ The Beginning of the Organized International Relations:▯ - The End of the War for Spanish Ascension▯ - A coalition of Britain and France▯ ▯ EA Threat to International Order▯ • • Nazi Germany▯ • Napoleanic France▯ •A Guardian of International Order▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Statecraft & Strategy: An Introduction to the History of International Relations 09/12/13▯ ▯ Peace of Westphalia▯ • ‘THE PEACE OF WESTPHALIA EFFECTIVELY AFFIRMED THE STATE AS THE UNCHALLENGED GUARANTOR OF DOMESTIC ORDER AND LEGITIMISER OF EXTERNAL WAR.”▯ (SIR MICHAEL HOWARD, THE INVENTION OF PEACE, P.16)▯ ▯ After the 30-Years War, there was a realization for the need for more direct and permanent communication between European powers.▯ ▯ Prior to the Peace of Westphalia, the divisions of religions between powers had prevented much of their communications with one another.▯ ▯ Catholics:▯ •Habsburgs▯ • Austria; Holy Roman Empire▯ • Spain▯ • Maximilian of Bavaria▯ ▯ Protestants:▯ •Bohemia▯ • Netherlands▯ • Sweden▯ • Gustavus Adolphus▯ • Brandenburg; Lützen▯ ▯ The Peace of Westphalia promoted the secularization of international relations.▯ ▯ The Peace of Westphalia also contributed to the establishment of an international system of diplomacy by creating a single map of borders by which all powers involved agreed upon.▯ ▯ The Holy Roman Empire:▯ Part of the Habsburg Monarchy▯ •one branch ruled Austria and the Holy Roman Empire▯ •one branch ruled Spain▯ This ‘empire’ was originally well set to become the major ruling power of Europe. Yet, by the 17th century, many breakaway states had begun to challenge the Holy Roman Empire’s authority.▯ ▯ The emergence of Protestantism gave many states a theological excuse to formally separate from the dominion of the catholic church. ▯ •The start of conflict was marked by the Defenestration of Prague▯ •The victory of the Protestant states allowed numerous states sovereign power.▯ •From then one, there would be no single, dominant power in Europe.▯ Statecraft & Strategy: An Introduction to the History of International Relations The 30-Years war began as a religious conflict▯ •Catholics such as Maximilian of Bavaria▯ •Protestants such as Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden▯ ▯ “I tell you frankly, I will not listen to talk about neutrality. His excellency must either be friend or foe. If his excellency wishes to hold with God, he is on my side. If, however, he wished to hold with the Devil, then he must fight against me.”▯ -Gustavus Adolphus to the Holy Roman Empire▯ ▯ September 6, 1634: Battle of Nördlingen▯ The Habsburgs crushed Sweden. France, under the rule of Cardinal Richelieu, who had been observing the battles between the Habsburgs and the Bohemians, entered the 30- Years war against the other Catholic powers.▯ ▯ “It is necessary to have a perpetual design to arrest the progress of Spain, and to halt to halt the advance of the House of Austria.”▯ - Cardinal Richelieu▯ Should Spain have victory in the 30-Years war it would have likely swallowed up France which it bordered on all sides. Richelieu’s motive was not theological, but raison d’état.▯ Richelieu did not fight for the survival of Catholicism, but for the survival of France as a sovereign state.▯ ▯ May 19, 1643: France Enters the 30-Years War▯ •France intercepted the Spanish army, preventing them from certain victory.▯ ▯ After Richelieu’s death, his concept of raison d’état was carried on by his successor, Mazarin.▯ “Reason of state is a wonderful beast, it chases away all other beasts.”▯ ▯ Raison d’État lead to the secularization of international relations. The overriding goal of foreign policy was now to protect the state, rather than its dominant faith.▯ ▯ “Reason of state is an autonomous political morality in which the legitimacy of a state’s policy is ultimately determined by the rational calculations of its own fundamental interests.”▯ ▯ ▯9/18/13▯ The decisive defeat of the Habsburg Empire gave way to the growth of smaller, sovereign states.▯ ▯ The primary strength of a nation during the industrial age came from its populace.▯ Statecraft & Strategy: An Introduction to the History of International Relations •During the 17th century, France’s population was far greater than that of any surviving power at the time.▯ •A larger population produces a larger army, more supplies and more tax revenue.▯ ▯ “This prince [Louis XIV] is evidently working towards Universal Monarchy and is not far from achieving it.”▯ - Venetian diplomat reporting on the state of France ▯ ▯ equality, but should have preeminence over all other kings, and is, in fact, already in possession of it.”▯ - Louis XIV’s Royal Decree to his Foreign Ambassadors▯ ▯ “Reputation is often more effective than the most powerful armies.”▯ - Louis XIV▯ ▯ France’s pursuit of “glory” came, not from ambitious conquests, but from his need to back up his reputation with military demonstrations.▯ “I am in a position to instill fear in my enemies, to cause astonishment to my neighbors, and despair to the enemies.”▯ - Louis XIV▯ ▯ Social Imperialism: ▯ Going to war abroad to solve domestic problems.▯ ▯ In order to satiate the ambitions of his aristocracy, Louis XIV had to give them the outlet of war.▯ ▯ would lay the basis for organized international relations.”▯s neighboring states that - Leopold Von Rank▯ ▯ “Once Flanders was in the power of Louis XIV, their own country [the Dutch Republic] would be nothing but a maritime province of aFrance.”▯ - English Diplomat▯ ▯ “The only way to conquer the Spanish Netherlands is to humble the Dutch, and if possible, destroy them.”▯ ▯ Louvois to Louis XIV▯ 09/23/13▯ ▯ Louis XIV and the Dutch War:▯ ▯ Statecraft & Strategy: An Introduction to the History of International Relations It was the coalition of the Dutch Republic, Sweden and Britain that had prevented France from absorbing the Spanish Netherlands. In order to try and weaken that coalition, Louis XIV went to war with the Dutch Republic.▯ The domestic power struggle between Charles II and the British Parliament over who would control finances prompted the King of England to accept an allowance from France to try and override the Parliament.▯ ▯ June 1670: The Secret Treaty of Dover:▯ England promised to make war with the Dutch Republic in return for French payment to the King Charles II▯ ▯ Despite Louis XIV’s expectations, only 2 Catholic provinces of Germany rallied to Frances call to war:▯ •Cologne▯ •Münster▯ • Allowed France to subvert the Spanish Netherlands and march straight into the Dutch Republic through Münster.▯ ▯ April 1672:▯ French Diplomats ensured the neutrality of Sweden▯ ▯ Thus, the Dutch Republic was turned upon by its former allies, and the coalition had been shattered. France could now freely wage war upon its Dutch rival.▯ ▯ France.▯nd of June 1672, both Amsterdam and Holland were about to be overtaken by ▯ Yet at this final moment, the relative confederation that was the Dutch Republic unified and rallied together against France.▯ •Prince William of Orange became recognized by the Dutch Republic as “Stadholder”, the holder and protector of the Dutch state.▯ • He brought together the Dutch people and stopped the French conquest in its tracks.▯ • He utilized his diplomatic skills to call upon other states to come to the aid of the Dutch Republic.▯ • By the end of 1672, foreign armies (many of whom were ancient enemies of the Dutch) arrived to help defend the Dutch against France.▯ ▯ August 1673:▯ Representatives of the Dutch Republic, the Austrian Habsburg Monarchy and the Kingdom of Spain signed an alliance to defend against France.▯ ▯ [Valencienne]▯ ▯ Statecraft & Strategy: An Introduction to the History of International Relations The marriage of Princess Mary of England to Prince William of Orange secured an alliance between the two nations, breaking the strength of France’s military force.▯ ▯ ▯y 1677, the Dutch was in a position to debate peace with France.▯ The Peace of Nymegen▯ • • August 10, 1678: The Franco-Dutch Treaties▯ • February 5, 1679: The Franco-Austrian Treaties▯ •All of the conquered Dutch territory and some French territory was returned to the Republic.▯ ▯ Yet William III of Orange, among others, saw that this peace was bad for Europe’s union.▯ •France had become the arbiter of European powers▯ •France now had to be bargained with.▯ ▯ 09/30/13▯ ▯ 10/02/13▯ ▯ June 16 1698▯ “Peace can only be upset by the eventuality of the King of Spain’s death.”▯ - Louis XIV▯ ▯ Even in peacetime, the French military was formidable. Yet, Louis XIV chose to sign the ▯eace of Rysik. This demonstrates his genuine desire for peace.▯ As the King of Spain was ailing, his nation and it’s empire was the most populous in all of Europe.▯ •If the Bourbon Monarchy of France managed to absorb the most Spanish territory, it would have been fully capable of becoming a global power.▯ •For the Dutch Republic, the rulership of the Spanish Netherlands was key to it’s survival. Should France take over the Spanish Netherlands, then there would be no buffer.▯ •For the Austrian Habsburgs, it was the peninsula of Italy that provided the greatest allure as a way for the landlocked nation to foster a navy.▯ ▯ As such, many nations had a great interest in claiming inheretance of Spain.▯ ▯ Both Louis XIV, having an heir from a Spanish princess, and the Austrian Habsburgs were in line for the throne of France.▯ ▯ Louis XIV was determined to claim Spain, but was cautious to begin another war with neighboring powers. Similarly, Louis XIV’s rival, William III, preferred to keep peace as well. Both nations were prepared to settle matters diplomatically.▯ Statecraft & Strategy: An Introduction to the History of International Relations Their solution to th
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