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HIS103Y1 (431)
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Department
History
Course
HIS103Y1
Professor
Vasilis Dimitriadis
Semester
Winter

Description
First Term Topics 1) Westphalia Background - Document which ended the 30 years of war - Produced Spain and Dutch treaty - Produced treaty between Emperor Ferdinand, other German princes, France and Sweden - Territorial changes o gave Sweden control of the Baltic sea o France got a firm frontier west of the Rhine river o Allies got additional lands - Independence confirmed for United provinces of Netherlands and Swiss confederation - Treaties confirmed Peace of Augsburg and extended religious toleration of Lutherans to include Calvinist church - Holy Roman Empire forced to recognize German princes as absolute sovereigns in their own dominions- weakened central authority Question: How did Westphalia affect international system of Europe? - Thesis: Westphalia contributed to end of Habsburg rule, territorial gains and Sweden as a northern power Argument 1: The end of Habsburg rule - Before Westphalia House of Habsburg attempted to achieve hegemony and at times universal monarchy - Charles V- the ruler of the Habsburgs not only had Spain, but had territories in Americas, Indies, Italy etc. - He had tried to keep the Habsburg power strong enough to defeat the French, to much for one man - Charles divided his dynasty between his brother and son - Eventually Austria and Habsburg empires intermarried but soon after they could not keep up the common family policy - Ferdinand II became ruler of Austria, and began the 30 years of war - The Habsburg empire was mainly destroyed because of France opposition - France had always tried to limit Habsburg power, and keep up their own independence - France constructed coalitions and anti Habsburg forces which ended 30 years war - France, Dutch, Denmark etc were all against Habsburgs - Leading power of Habsburg empire, Spain was defeated by France and Dutch - The peace that came out of Westphalia was one of the most important, it signified end of Habsburg rule and beginning of French Bourbon - Spain and Dutch, after 80 years of war settled their issues in a treaty with Spain declaring Dutch independence - Emproror Ferdinand I and II had attempted to defeat enemies militarily and instead peace came out of the settlement - The idea that the Empire was an actual state and could produce its own policies was finally dead Argument 2: Territorial gains - territorial gains of Germany from Westphalia were few - Dutch had no territorial designs on the province - France’s territorial gains were all taken from Austria and the Holy Roman Empire not spain - Westphalia was important in establishing a territorial base line which was continually referred to in treaties up until 1789 Argument 3: Swedish Supremacy in the North - Westphalia had created Sweden a European and leading Baltic power - She had gained territory in Germany which gave her direct control of the mouths of the three rivers - Her new territory gains, her permanent seat at Imperial Diet and her guarantee of peace, gave her opportunity to continually interfere in Germany and was a permanent factor in Imperial politics - French was pro Sweden (used her in 30 years war as counter to Austria and Habsburgs) - Sweden’s empire had ensured she had almost complete control of the trade in metals and grain which were produced in Baltic - Although the population of Sweden was small, her near monopoly of EU copper production, successful arms industry, splendid army made her dominant northern power - The Baltics had always been a war between Sweden and Denmark, Sweden wanted full control of the Baltics - Sweden was militarily powerful but not strong enough in the nacy- Ducth and England were - War of the north in 1655 started with good victories of Sweden in Poland, when Charles X was replaced by Charles XI, Sweden became less powerful and then France intervened (wanted Sweden as an ally against Austria and Germany), instead of an imperialist power France wanted Sweden to be a loyal dependent - In 1660 at the end of the war Sweden had reached its greatest extent but not as an imperialist power, France had to rescues Sweden and now Sweden had many enemies including Denmark, Poland, Russia 2) NapoleonQuestion: How did Napoleon use force and diplomacy? - Thesis: - Napoleon had unique impact on European states system with his military achievements o his defeats of his enemies left them at his mercy o Victories made actions of diplomats irrelevant o Each power was left powerless and handed over the territory asked for by napoleon - His view of foreign policy was more similar to a general rather than a foreign minister - He ignored to conventions of international law and diplomacy which alienated continental opinion - Napoleons foreign policy lacked a central theme o Dominant terms: opposition for England, control of Germany and Italy, supremacy for France in Mediterranean and Baltics - Napoleons personal aspect gave a twist to this French policy - He believed all problems could be solved through military means o he was wrong he continued to have the problem of how to produce a stable political settlement between Napoleon and Europe - Anglo- French war o Britain disliked threat of France colonial expansion o Napoleons large scale improve to the French army alarmed Britain ministers o The two states are evenly matched but with different power  Britain has naval superiority and france has a larger population and military o Britain’s goal is to not let any merchant ships from France reach continental ports o Eventually Britain and france are the only two nations at war- both exhausted o Decide to go for peace o France gets all overseas territories taken by Britain in the past 9 years o Britain keeps sri lanka and Trinidad o There is peace but no resolvement of French/british problems o Napoleon does not agree to a commercial treaty- annoys Britain o Peace no more profitable than war o Napoleon surprises Britain with his expantionist behavious in regions not covered by the treaty o Britain does not withdraw from malta o Napoleon still wants war but waiting o In 1803 france decides to invade Britain across the channel in an elaborate scale o France constrcuts the grand army o In December napoleon convinces spain to help defeat Britain o Napoleon ends up reverting to the policy of continental system o Continental Europe returns to war when Britain gets Russia, Sweden and Austria to joining her against france o Many shifts in alliance systems o Napoleon keeps rearranging the map after all his victories and his opponents fail to achieve a convincing alliance against him because they are interested in their own territories o In 1805 Russia and Austria declare war on napoleon, and napoleon find allies in Germany o The victory ends any threat to Napoleon o Again in 1806 France defeats Prussia and Russia o Rusisa and Prussia both agree to join the continen
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