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Lecture 4

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University of Toronto St. George
Alison Smith

History Lecture 4 There is no guarantee that untested International Relations policies will succeed to maintain harmony and peace among the great powers of Europe. From the Habsburg to France monarchy, powerful states have tried to take over Europe. During Louis XIV reign from 1661, France has grown so strong that it can subtlety impose its will unto European states through economic subsidies and military intimidation. By the late 17 century, France towered over its European neighbours in terms of population, 18-19mil, three times Britains, three times Spains and eight time Dutchs. Only Russia could rival it in terms of populace but it was agriculturally poor due to their unfavourable geographical climate. The peasant population of France were comparatively more well off then their Russian counterparts. It means that France was able to better support its military establishment. In times of peace, France armies numbered hundred thousands. During war times, mostly against the rest of Europe, France military strength numbered four hundred thousands, easily the largest the world have ever since. 1680, after the Dutch war, a diplomat from Venice concluded: This prince (Louis XIV) is working towards universal monarchy and just making European states part of its provinces and satellites, and is not far from achieving it. He felt that International Ord
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