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The Congress of Vienna and the Congress System (part 2) & From HIS103 - Congress System to Concert of Europe

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Denis Smyth

The Congress of Vienna and the Congress System (part 2) & From Congress System to Concert of Europe th Wednesday, January 12 / 2011  For the first time, the question of organized international order was brought up  For the first time, intentionally, a group of statespersons happened to sit down and tried to devise institutions and principles that could form a consciously managed international system  Agreed territorial settlement – a consensus was achieved amongst the great powers at Vienna  The common interest of Britain and Austria (Britain = pursue global expansion)  In the immediate years after Vienna, there were no conferences held  By 1818, it became clear that the great powers must come together and talk about pending problems of international order  Question of the “Polish Saxon territorial exchange” – gather up all Polish territory that would set up a constitutional monarchy inside Poland  Some of the czar’s closest advisors suggested that he should face the west  Suggestion = a Russian alliance with France to uphold the Russian takeover of Poland  Castlereagh = group Russian’s powers with the West  End of September 1830 – Aix–La-Chapelle  There was another issue apart from the Russian threat – those were the conditions inside France  The dissatisfaction inside France stemmed from the military occupation of the country manned by the British general the Duke of Wellington  So Castlereagh proposed a conference at the Aix-La-Chapelle to deal with these two issues  Rapidly Castlereagh vetoed several proposals from the czar  He professed himself to repudiate his advisors advice  He wanted the powers to a new alliance (but not under the same commitments of the Quadruple Alliance)  The czar wanted to sought off any threat from France, and any threat from any country that signed on to the Vienna Settlement  Really wanted an alliance of all the states of Europe  Instead, Castlereagh came up with an alternative solution – which largely consisted of concessions to France  Condition - Evacuate their military positions from France  Via a new treaty signed on November 15 , 1818 – a quintuple alliance was formed  Now under the terms of the quintuple alliance, France fully joined the other powers  Future conferences would have to include French participation  Article 6, Quadruple Alliance – rooting it in the ground of Europe  Russian Emperor – in the spring of 1815 – he suggested a political pact to the Austrians and the Prussians, which they would join Austria, and go around based on Christian Morality  The Holy Alliance – between 1815 and 1820, Metternich came to realize that this hollow instrument might be turned into a forceful arm of his own – Metternich had a wider continental mission (“To fight revolution on the field of international politi
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