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HIS103Y1 (431)

2 Peace of Westphalia.docx

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Vasilis Dimitriadis

Diplomacy, War, Proper Strategy Best solution for humanity = international alliances (organization) It sets the rules…Every major war concludes with a Major peace treaty Signed in major international conference Korean War still has no truce Europe can always achieve diplomacy = Foundation of European states system 30 Years War - One of greatest carnages in Europe history More devastating than WW2 aka Bloodiest war Germany - 15 mil...5 mil died...1/3 population…approximately 1. Separation, breakdown of church...protestant and catholic 2. Military revolution breakthrough...gunpowder unprecedented carnage on battlefield Christianity conflict - Martin Luther german nailed a thesis - 95 questions Methods the church was using to garner income - Indulgence - to pay your sins…$10k guarantee Morality = catholic individuals did not live up to promise, so Luther questioned role of Pope Pope arrest Luther – outraged - bring him to Rome and condemn him Luther escaped and continues reformation of church Church survives without Pope? Divide the Prince from the Holy Roman Empire? Started in 1680 = drop in revenue, drop in political power Catholics eliminated protestants...almost all of them from the HRE Denmark, Sweden, all came to war to try to save Protestantism and save Europe Austria, Spain = Catholic states overwhelming Protestant Gustavus Adolphus – You are either with God or with the devil Founder/King of Sweden introduce new military Catholic France joined protestant side entered 30 years war Why? I am French first not Catholic - comes down to patriotism Cardinal Richelieu - Discard religion, seek national interest Offer $1 mil annual subsides to Sweden and Dutch May 1643 - French defeat Spanish army to ensure no more support to Austria (1/2 catholic forces) German and Austrian Catholics in HRE defeated Ensured Protestantism
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