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8 War of Spanish Succession.docx

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Vasilis Dimitriadis

Charles II (Carlos) unable to produce an heir Candidates = Louis or Leopold Gain = Hegemony as the most powerful state in Europe Will from Madrid - Offered to Louis but creates a dilemma If not accepted  Vienna, Austria Imposes that France gets put in the same situation geographically as 200 years ago surrounded by Habsburgs Louis claimed it on behalf of his grandson "Im trying to avoid a major general war" In favor of hoping to maintain natural peace and balance of power Phillip of Anjou becomes King of Spain Was war inevitable? NO William III and Heinsius in Dutch Republic recognized him Leopold rejected him since he got nothing out of this deal Conflict between Austria and France Louis could not accommodate giving land to Austria Philip could not chop up the empire and give land out to Austria You cannot be good king if you give out the land, you want to maintain it NOT European wide conflict...just between France and Austria One of the greatest wars in Louis' time Louis made a war promoting climate; not securing international stability Louis created the conditions and took it well beyond his own control Political blunders, same situation as before 9 years war 1. When he wanted English and Dutch to recognize Philip of Anjou as King Louis did something in the name of Spanish king to pressure them To take over barriers and fortresses separating the Spanish Netherlands from France Ryswick Treaty - previous treaty that concluded 9 years war 2. Buffer zone between the Dutch and France cease to exist Nothing prevented France forces to enter Spanish Netherlands and approach Dutch land France and Dutch became neighbours basically 3. Heinsius wrote a letter to William Feb 1701 William in a return letter Feb 1701 - in 1 day I see the security which I worked for 28 years evaporated Situation cannot be tolerated for Dutch, England, Balance of Power and security of Europe 4. Even after recognition as king, French forces did not pull out from fortresses Louis took over those lands and violated the Treaty of Ryswick Posed a direct threat to Dutch - diplomatic error WHY? - Meeting in March...War between Austria and France was inevitable If a general war comes to Europe it is better to fight it with these lands in French hands than Dutch Military terms - clear cut argument, reasonable Diplomatic terms - violation of Treaty of Ryswick and you cannot make peace by violating your own commitment over and over 5. Violated the Spanish Will Louis did not refuse Philip to the French throne naturally brought up ultimate unification in Europe Louis understood the consequences August 1701 - 1st declaration of new Spanish King - Grant the asiento - slavery (most lucrative deal) Incredible economic bonanza for French p.57 Louis 25% shareholder Every war Louis fought had to be terminated because France ran out of money Now he has all the more reason to be able to outlast the enemies and WIN Clear danger to European stability English merchant and Dutch wanted to do business not war...but they are cut from the asiento 6. Louis recognize James III as King of England IN PUBLIC to score points with Rome - New Pope Demonstrate his status as a catholic since James is catholic Louis knew France vs Austria was a given so he wanted to gain something One of the greatest recognitions of the Treaty of Ryswick was William as King of England Louis questions the protestant succession in England Challenging stability, Europe creates a Grand Alliance to challenge France Dutch, England, Austria, Germanic states, HRE Leading States - England and Dutch goals 1. France and Spain must be separated (against hegemonic state) 2. All barrier fortresses must be returned to Dutch 3. Only after these 2 goals...GA thinks of compensating Leopold to maintain balance of power 4. Fulfill wishes of maritime powers - gain trade power from France, asiento and trade in Latin America GA offers Louis a manifesto 8 months to think about it to accommodate the allies and no war Louis responded by publishing the offer and made the Dutch and English a laughing stock 4 years passed since 9 years war France = Harvest exceptional, economy, military - modern weapons i.e. bayonet Also had allies unlike 9 years war No worries for Louis since he has Spain…a tremendous asset, rich, colonies BUT this was an illusionary hope…Spain was a liability Portugal on their side, so no one can threaten Philip Ensure independence and colonial concessions in Brazil Bavaria - Manuel Maxmillian on Louis side (German/Catholic state) Hungarian rebel wanted to break up Habsburg May 15, 1702 - War of Spanish Succession Longest, bloodiest, consequential conflict in international relations Both sides saw no major gains = Draw 1 notable…British victory = intercepted Spanish convoy loaded with silver Minor naval victory - Portugal recognized naval superiority belongs to GA Portugal would be exposed to ally attack - 1703 - switched sides to GA So did the Duke of Sovoy (Louis' only ally) March 1702 – William dies from riding a horse Louis wanted to finish the war as soon as possible and have all the French gains recognized Capture Vienna, defeat Austria to force them out and collapse of GA Hungarians uprise (revolution) in eastern part of Austrian empire Bavaria launched attack from west Turks launched from south 1704 - 3 different fronts attacked 1 major French attack Habsburg collapse politically and militarily No way Dutch and English could keep fighting… John Churchill, Duke of Marlborough = New military leader for GA Eugene of Sovoy teaming up with Churchill = Success Louis ended up having generals having incompetent/mediocre power GA - save Austria from northern front, John Churchill found a weak spot in north SPEED - 5 weeks travelled 400km unheard of…French is confused From nort
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