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11 Diplomatic Revolution.docx

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Vasilis Dimitriadis

Prussia pulls out of war - needed money to raise army vs. Austria 2 years after leaving from war - Returned to launch offensive vs. Austria Pro-French Germanic alliance France - free hand to wage wars in North America 1745 French had to enter war directly to capture Hanover Dutch forces British for a peace settlement British gained Cape Breton, Louisberg, Canadian possessions of France French doing well in northern Europe Italy + Sovoy joins Austria  Spain defeated France and Britain = financial crisis Oct 1748 - Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle settled war – restore status quo Return territories captured from one another Austria – Recognize Frederick’s conquest of Silesia – Humiliated, Maria never really accepted France regained Cape Breton Island, give Dutch fortresses back, return Austrian Netherlands Britain give back Canadian provinces and India Bavaria and Saxony = Independent states Prussia = Considered Great Power – Threat to Habsburg empire Austria = Declining Power Domestic Succession = International affair (like Spanish Succession) Russia cannot support Austria France and Britain preoccupied with colonial conflict Everything went back to the situation prior to the outbreak of the war France gave up everything on the continent - reached borders of Dutch Efficiency of Prussian army = dominance vs Austrian Prussian ruler = diplomacy does not matter Switched sides not once but twice = Unfaithfulness to international agreements 1748 - Russia settled own domestic succession - too late for them to play a role Russian presence - Destroyed Sweden Greatest opponent was no longer France, nor Spain – Attempt to gain more Italian territory 3 times Britain compelled Austria to accept terms - opposed to Habsburg interest Count Kaunitz (Austrian-HRE diplomat) p.182 Austria Netherlands = liability Separated by huge distances 1. Economically never included in Habsburg Austria Netherlands tied with Dutch republic All trade had to pass through them - benefiting Dutch more than Vienna 2. Austria has to pay for Dutch forces to defend vs. French in war No less than 3 wars due to this land – Offer it to France! Bourbon vs Habsburg - eliminate competition Free up Austrian resour
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