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12 Seven Years War.docx

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Vasilis Dimitriadis

st May 1 1756 - 1st treaty of Versailles – Defensive alliance Terminate hostilities between Bourbons and Habsburgs Austrian success = Less challengers 1 no more conflicts in Italy from Spain 2 Central Europe - Germanic lands 3 Austria-netherlands Letters from Saxony and Russia made Fred ask Maria Theresa who denied claims of anti-Prussia Fred dealt with 1 state 1 at a time 1v1 Weakest link = Saxony Impossible to attack Austria since Saxony was in the way Saxony is close to Berlin - 50km (proximity) Same situation as Louis Paris is too close to Low Countries st Attack 1 ! – Waiting = More disadvantages 1 month he took over Saxony Prussia = 65k vs 17k Saxony Saxon troops and treasury taken into French hands $$ = provided 1/3 of his total expenditure Military success does not guarantee political/diplomatic success Fred ensured the coalition and made it stronger He is seen as the evil one and set up the entire continent vs him Prussia is not unified so it is vulnerable to get attacked from east and west Britain could not pay Elizabeth 100k per year 1. Elizabeth hates Fred for personal reasons Russia always pro-British French - denied rights of Russians as European power 2. Louis' own son was married to Saxon Princess = Ignoring France as a great power 1 million pounds + entire French army offered to Austria No rewards for France Louis offered free resources to defeat Fred until Silesia is recaptured In the name of HRE declared war against Prussia...many germanic states did not join THE ODDS Prussia 2.5 mil even after included Silesia 3.5.....Saxony.....STILL outnumbered France, Austria, Russia 700k army vs. Prussia - 165k Fred survived - military instincts 1. Attack saxony...just like war of austrian succession Not just war between Prussia vs Saxony but a 7 years war....merged to a great conflict whole europe + overseas new world - global conflict Catching Europe by surprise All 3 not close France - Austria 1 Treaty of Versailles = Defensive Austria - Russia....2 empresses = same desire 2 Treaty of Versailles (May 1 1757) - Offensive p.192 France and Russia = no connection France and Russia 75 years against each other French would put Sweden, Ottoman Empire and Poland against Russia Hence Russia had trouble to get into western Europe -Must work together with French to destroy Prussia -Take over East Prussia Spain = Neutral Great powers did not agree on 1 common political objective Louis wanted to show that he could dominate foreign policy to personally dictate it for Europe Russia wants East Prussia Austria wants Silesia 1 would launch major offensive and the others = Idle France fought war for Austrian benefit = Loss in NA Hiring mercenaries = expensive BEST SYSTEM = train soldiers and not ruin economy Each division, regiment was based for each region Prussia survives – Military genius – Small state, rotate troops, took any dispensable civilian and trained them as soldiers – Rely on themselves not on other troops (mercenaries) – Stand by each other Cosmopolitan army – when it gets bad, they won’t stick up for one another Never turn your back on your friends, otherwise you are the village joke Training = invincibility = discipline No desertion of family - commitment and loyalty Desertion = greatest obstacle in Europe war – Prussia had least amount of desertion DISCIPLINE - unheard of the level of training…most of soldiers = illiterate Fear of officers more than opponents = discipline Less personal humiliation...more respect...same system Generals could not slap soldiers’ face Far better trained than any other army in Europe st Prussia = 1 army marched left right left right = PRECISION Homogeneous unit Outsmart and change plans vs opponents in the middle of battle Defeat armies 2x as large DRILLS, practice, practice even in peace time Fred paid them on time, offer clothing, uniforms raise prestige of army More sweat in practice = The less you bleed in battle STRATEGY - lucky British – Only ally = Prussia commit all resources to wage of war overseas in Usa and Canada French could never challenge that Parliament supported Blue Water theory - War in NA = advantage to capture territory and cheapest course of action Continental theory = preserve war in continent, protect hanover, allow British free hand overseas Austria and Dutch would not fight for Britain like in GA - (Dutch = secondary power now) Austrian Netherlands would be in French hands after Silesia is captured = no more buffer zone Dutch = Neutral with France – Will not attack Netherlands War triggered by France attacking British navy = successful attack for French France captured Minorca – attacked Hanover – home of George II British parliament recognized threat - create an army of observation p.196 (Duke of Cumberland of Hanover and German soldiers) To save Hanover – Offer neutrality with French – No result Money went into Army of Observation 100K French soldiers forced Britain out - Battle of Hastenburg 1757 British - Acknowledge French success in northern Europe – Hanover surrendered to France Disbanded the army of observation and pull out from war Russia takes over East Prussia Fred prevented the junction – success = the odds against Prussia = 4:1 He pulled out from Silesia and intersected French army from joining Austria Most successful and consequential in politics and military Prussia intercepted French army - discipline while in march - military formation and attacked 2x size in 1.5 hours 500 prussians 10k french casualties captured almost everything Proven birth of Frederick’s military genius No longer doomed! Wiping out Prussia takes MORE than an army Diplomatically = British recognized still have a chance raised back army of observation + replaced commander Defeated French in Hanover and tied down 100k troops in HRE Free hand for Frederick to fight Austria and Russia Britain political partner NOT alliance April 1758 Britain gives 670k pounds/year subsidy to Prussia = survival Army with a state = catch 22 - army needs money Austria expect Prussia - lined up ready for war 30k army of Prussia attack from Takes 3 hours to line up Prussia’s change = 1/2 hour – cannot stop speed Napoleon claims the battles of Rossbach and Leuthen = Best generals list + THE GREAT name Choiseul = Foreign minister understands IR offering aid to Austria Reverse French commitments of Austria  3 Treaty of Versailles  Tackle Britain in Europe March 1759 p.193 Lessen burden on France in war vs. Prussia France and Austria = Dynastic union – point in time of marriage Franch Loss in naval battles - 7 seas ruled by British Britain had free hand in NA, Asia and far East 1758 - Britain captured Louisburg (canons at hart house) and whole NA Choiseul convinces new King of Spain Don Carlos aka Charles III (successor of Ferdinand VI) Also Duke of Parma – Britain Hatred rd 3 Family Compact in Aug 1761 p.253 Spain’s aid to WIN = French help to capture Gibraltar and hand over Minolta and concessions in NA Loss = France offered Louisiana for losses Spanish navy = owned = British victories Britain captured Florida, Cuba, but not Manila in Philippines p.255 because Spaniards offered ransom for Manila Fred - hold off everyone 3 years into war Eventually run out of men 1760 - 75% officers eliminated Casualties of war replaced by noobs Fred feared Russia taking over Berlin too CHANCE IS WHAT SAVED HIM 1762 Jan - Elizabeth died Peter III = German prince and admirer of Frederick Secret letters warning Prussia came from him Discontinued Russian foreign policy to attack Prussia Alliance with Fred and offered 20k Russian soldiers to attack Austria Gave back East Prussia in return for nothing Changed domestic situation in HRE and BoP Britain had everything – comes to terms with France – No care for BoP Britain gave money to Prussia to Oppose France and Austria and not change BoP Fred wanted to destroy Austria =
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