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First Coalition.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Vasilis Dimitriadis

First coalition – Continent vs France No talks of peace until a monarchy is re-instated in France Strategy – pay subsidy to secondary states to engage France in as many ways to win Recaptured Austrian Netherlands, threatening the existence of the revolution Revolution survived by: -British paid subsidies to secondary states who did not have enough military sources -Left out Austria, Russia and Prussia -If any state had the objective to destroy the revolution, they would have won -None of A R P focused on France, obsessed with Poland -Poles accepted revolutionary constitution, Catherine would not tolerate, since they wanted control of it nd 2 – idea of revolution is never accepted into Eastern Europe (Catherine) Bring Poland back under her control, balance of power in Eastern Europe, all states must benefit, willing partner = Prussia Sep 20 1792 – Too expensive and tough to wage a war in France, came back to Eastern Europe nd Jan 1793 – 2 Partition of Europe Got huge chunk of Poland – 60% of remaining state, blow to Poland and bigger blow to Austria Austria could not concentrate in France and join A and P and agree to 3 partition - Jan 1795 Poland ceases, blow to balance of power in Eastern Europe, breathing space!!!!!! – for French revolution This is why revolutionaries to survive, it was a mistake to unleash Survival initiated a struggle, unforeseen since 30 years war, surpassing violence and destruction, a line, the rise of 1 arbiter who would take over Europe. What did the revolutionaries do in the mean time? Spring 1793, suspended constitution, created a committee of public safety, decided the fate of revolution and Europe, initiate concept of total war – every state resource channeled into 1 objective, to defend the revolution, nickname victory! -Changed the nature of French revolution, military affairs, attitude of French revolutionary state -IF Louis managed to take Europe and threaten hegemony, how much more would a revolution could do HUMAN RESOURCE 25million, every citizen is obliged to defend the state Create a new revolutionary army, 1.5 million men were conscripted, biggest army ever – 10:35 all they have to do, is enforce ideology to free the rest of the continent And to liberate all people, Europe must be freed, so interfere in every state Soldiers had to be fed, equipped and trained – targeted the church, sold it to bourgeoisie Recruit botalians and merge with botalia, the molgamay, bring in raw recruits and overcome the deficit in training and change the military tactics unlike 2 lines and duke it out, use new army to create colmuns and charge into the enemy’s line Unable to find a strategy and antidote, in military terms, the british – totally unwilling to accept a defeat…no support from A P R, left alone. Steady decline of Britain -1793 got initial goals of full control of low countries by France, what Louis14th dreamt about -Reached HRE -1795 Prussians got their territory, has north Poland and sees power of France,…but financially broke, threw in the towel in first coalition, first treaty of basil, Prussia and France would agree to cease fire and withdraw from first coalition Second treaty of basil, giving Haiti to France France gains more of a free hand, Toulon the major French naval base was seized by British, France sends young major, napoleon was originally Italian Napoleon compelled the british, a free hand, rising star in frenh revolutionary army, more and more senior command. France gained all this, still did not liberate them from financial instability!!!!
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