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University of Toronto St. George
Vasilis Dimitriadis

Intro to History th - Huge Empires in 16 century essentially rendered international relations useless. They did not require it. - Will look at war ad its relation to international relations. - 50%-60% of the male population 3000 BC died from combat or combat related injuries. th 20 Century? 2-3%! - Will look at the foreign policies of the Great Powers (France, England, Prussia) until the end of World War II . - Will look at influential leaders. th September 14 On Statecraft & Strategy The aim of state is for its OWN survival. (The Great Game) The Aim of The "Great Game" National Intrests National Security (Long Term Well (Immediate Well Otzi "The Ice Man" Being) Being) Diplomatic;Economic; Cultural;Strategic Land;Sea;Air;Cyber The Soverign State How do state keep national interests? - Diplomacy: 2 things needed. Either common interest or conflict. Why would they be talking otherwise? - Deterrence if diplomacy falls through. -Threatening consequences. Must have gravitas to make threat seriously. (Saddam Hussein in 1 Gulf War not taken seriously!) -Must have a rational opponent. - If deterrence does not work, coercive diplomacy can be used. (Light War) (Americans failed using it prior to WWII against Japan) -If none of this works….WAR!!!! - War is not a guaranteed victory no matter how superior your forces are. (US in Iraq) - Components are often overlooked in war (Diplomatic, Culture, Religion, Geography) - How does one ensure victory in nuclear war? (M.A.D) - Great minds got together early 20 century to talk about how warfare would be undergone. International institutions set up, only thing to work thus far. Religious institutions actually created more divisions. Organization of weapons didn’t work. Every Major War must be concluded by a major peace treaty at a major conference. Peace of Westphalia set precedence. – Jean Jaque Rousseau calls it one of the greatest achievements of Europe. Preceded by the 30 years war, in which a 1/3 of the European population died. - What caused this war? Schism of the Church Technological Revolution with usage of gunpowder. Holy Roman Princes sided with Luther not due to religious reasons, but by political ramifications. Conflict started in 1680 - France shockingly joined Protestant side under the guide of Cardinal Richelieu to protect French national interests Treaty of Westphalia – Protestants and Catholics conducted their talks in separate towns close to Westphalia. - Huge gains for French. Had say in Germanic Politics - Spaniards lost huge amounts. Lost Dutch. - Holy Roman Emperor and Pope lost huge amounts, deemed it void. - Birth of Secularization of politics. - Separation of the Hapsburg branches. - Embassies must be set up. - Borders pinned down. Birth of modern international relations. The Foreign Policy of Louis XIV and the Origins of the Dutch War - France had a ambitious young King, Louis XIV – “I am the state” - Wanted France to be recognized as the apex of European society. - Only way to gain glory = through war. - Multiple theories as to why Louis took such an aggressive stance. (Glory, Power, Security) What type of state was Louis left with? - France was secure, had various allies, and had power in Germanic politics and issue. - The French fought for another 30 years with the Spanish after the Peace of Westphalia until the treaty of the Pyrenees. Louis did not care for the Navy, always secondary. Primary concerns was Spanish Netherlands border. Flat land, rivers flowing into France = easy invasion. French agreeing to the Spanish promise for money that they knew they could not pay, so they would have grounds for taking territory. -1665 French Army move into the Spanish Netherlands, seeking to take it. France smartly agreed to sit down with the former allies Triple Alliance to discuss The Origins of the Dutch War - The Dutch held a large amount of wealth at this time - The French (Colbert) wanted to supersede the Dutch - Before setting out to destroy the Dutch - The triple alliance had to be destroyed - Isolate the Dutch - Make sure they had an overwhelming force. - Many military analysts agree that if Louis had taken Amsterdam early on, the war would have been over early in the summer. However, Louis was too arrogant to take it - The Dutch desperately opened the dykes, making Amsterdam became an island. Asked for diplomatic means to end the war. After the Dutch War, Louis decided to use the glory of it to gain more land through diplomatic means. - French lawyers looked through legal loopholes of various treaties. (Chambers of re-union) - Greatest territorial gains done through diplomatic means. - Defended these gains in the name of French national security. - No one wanted to aggravate France again, so they never defended themselves from area being taken. When the Pope requested all of Europe help defend Vienna against the Turks, Louis “The Most Christian King” was the only European state to not send troops. - While everyone else was distracted, he took more land of the Spanish Netherlands. - In an attempt to score points with the Pope, he rev
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