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The Reformation in England.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Anthony Cantor

The Reformation In England J. Colet (d. 1519) J. Wycliffe (d. 1384) Cardinal Wolsey (d. 1529) Thomas Cromwell (d. 1540) T. Cranmer (d. 1556) Henry VIII (d. 1547) Edward VI (d. 1553) Mary I (d. 1558) Elizabeth I (d. 1603) -major movement by John Wycliffe, suppressed by Henry V: preached similar things that Luther had (followers called lollers~) -The Great Civil Wars had same effect on English Church as on rest of nation w/ coming of Tudor dynasty, things changed a bit b/c Henry VII was pious & tried restructuring the Church after the Wars of the Roses -by 16 -century: perception of English church was altered by recognition that it wasn’t high quality; it was failing in large number of its fundamental roles (true of English monasticism) income of religious houses (monasteries & convents) was astounding (came from vast estates they owned) Church owned about 10% of all aerable land in England (people left estates b/c they thought they could bribe God) centres of luxury instead of learning parents put “surplus children” in religious houses -serious attempts to reform English Church, major ex.: J. Colet was accused of heresy attempts spread to Wolsey, Henry VIII’s chief advisor, who was guilty of every abuse, but tried to do something about weakening church -the Church essentially stayed the way it was, despite these half-hearted attempts at reform mediocrity of English Church (& monasticism) -Lutheran reformation changed things for Catholicism in England (catalyst) income to Wolsey’s illegitimate son was seen as a major fault of the church place of Pope in English life had always been unstable (Pope was more sympathetic to France’s needs & morals of Avignon papacy were not respected) urban merchants began to have a negative view of the parish (increasingly extortionate) Richard Honey Affair called loller, one of his children died as an infant (priest wanted to charge him to bury his child, Honey didn’t agree & hit priest, Honey was arrested & put in church’s prison next day, he was found dead: he had to have been murdered “by the church”) became catalyst to extreme hostility o extortionate demands of church coming of Lutheranism focused this discontent (successful model) -Wolsey dominated church & state from 1518-29 -those interested in Lutheranism were identified w/ those interested in social revolution (lollers, to change socal structure) Lutheran books were smuggled secretly into England (students at Oxford & Cambridge came together to view these books King Henry VIII hated it; he was very devout (saw these people as disruptive of the fabric of the state, not so much to God) no one at the time could imagine there being 2 religions in 1 kingdom (=you couldn’t trust everyone) 1521: Henry wrote Assertion of the Seven Sacraments, (likely that More wrote this), Pope was happy & gave Henry the title of Defender of the Faith (Queen Elizabeth still holds this title) -situation was beginning to shift dramatically (reproductive habits of Henry VIII) had married Catherine of Aragon (Catholic), but on the basis of biblical texts he claimed that his marriage to her wasn’t legitimate b/c she was the widow of his brother (but really b/c she couldn’t “give” him a male heir) turned to Wolsey to get allowance from the Pope to get divorce in May 1527, Rome was sacked by Emperor Charles V in most horrible set of events since Barbarians & Pope Clement VII de Medici (essentialy prisoner of Charles V, nephew of Catherine of Aragon) so Pope wasn’t in a position to tell Charles & couldn’t grant annulment Wolsey fe
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