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The Wars of Religion.docx

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Anthony Cantor

The Wars of Religion Trent (1545-63) Roman Inquisition (1542) I. Loyola (1491-1556) Jesuits Philip II (1556-98) William of Orange (d. 1584) Guise vs. Bourbon Henry IV (Bourbon) 1589-1610 Nantes (1598) Les Politiques -diff. concepts of the state were formed based on religious conflicts -16 century: power of state should be used to control citizens in every aspect of their existences -believed ruler & not just the church could decide major things about a region -Machiavelli counselled that not the law, morality, religion/human pity should stand in the way of needs of the state (the state was the person who controlled it) -needed diff. concepts of authority & sovereignty through war (raison d’etre: no immorality, illegality, etc. that can’t be justified b/c ruler believes its necessary for well-being of state itself) concept was at work everywhere after Reformation, especially in Roman Catholic Church, which needed tighter control to ensure the survival of Catholicism: Protestantism had to be stopped at any price (Roman Church reorganized w/ centralized monarch) 1534: Pope Paul III elected as leader, said he would restructure the church. Abuses in the church had to be corrected if the faithful were to remain. Only way to achieve this was by calling a church council w/ authority to redefine doctrine & strengthen the faith (came together at conference of Trent in Italy in 1545: sessions continued for almost 20 years of debate about what Catholicism wasmost important matters determined was reaffirmation of elements that Protestants had defined as inappropriate; ritual of religion was very much seen as efficationspope’s central authority was reaffirmed, which was necessary b/c it was generally believed that any army had to have one general) rejuvenated church put itself in position to do battle 1542: Roman Inquisition was centralized to decide from Rome who/what was orthodox/heterodox tried to get at root of those who might leave faith b/c they were thinking the “wrong” thoughts 1559: Index of Forbidden Books proposed (reinforced in 1564) – Roman Catholics were told what they could & couldn’t read & know, penalties for going against this were severe (other Christian sects had spread so quickly b/c of the printing press) # of books grew year by year, defined orthodox belief (index lasted until 1966, up until then it functioned in a consistent way since establishment) -Ignatius of Loyola founded a society of zealous Catholics: Jesuits developed military mentality became convinced that he should be fighting for Christ (not a King) & the Pope, against infidels in Spain & elsewhere (had vision of religious order that he was going to found: Society of Jesus) wrote a book of training & discipline he picked up disciples in Jerusalem & Paris & asked Pope in Rome to ordain them as priests (in 1538 they were also granted right to found the Society of Jesus, a new religious order) organized around: preaching, teaching & missionary activity he realized education was instrument that shaped people’s thoughts, took humanist curriculum & adapted it (creation of elite school system that would train elite class of Europe that would be leaders of continent) -concept of Christ’s soldiers had sinister meanings -belief that it was state’s responsibility to establish a single religion (raison d’etre, it means you can trust other people) led to many years of continuous warfare -at the end of Trent, the undisputed leader of Europe was the Emperor King Charles V b/c of his inexhaustible
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