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HIS109Y1 (536)
Lecture

The Church.docx

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Department
History
Course
HIS109Y1
Professor
Anthony Cantor
Semester
Fall

Description
The Church Curia Previsions Rota (1250s) Plenitudo Potestatis (fullness of power, complete power) Guelf (papal)/Ghibelline (imperial party) Babylonian Captivity (1305-78) Great Schism (1378-1417) Constance John Hus  Until Reformation: there was only one recognized Christian Church in West (Roman Catholic Church)  If you were outside, you were pretty much outside of society  Issue of sovereignty in Middle ages was v. significant  When Roman empire collapsed, so did sovereignty: 2 sources of sovereignty 1. Belief that all secular rulers inherited some measure of Roman imperial rule in West 2. Sovereignty of Church (more complex): around 700-850, a forgery by Monks said: emperor Constantine decided to move capital of empire to Constantinople from Rome & b/c Pope cured him of leprosy, he decided to give rule of western empire to the Pope (papal/ecclesiastical sovereignty) b/c of this document, pope believed he had authority of emperor to rule in secular matters as well as being successor to St. Peter to rule in spiritual matters (claimed to have 2 keys: to heaven & jurisdiction) (only emperor could wear red shoes: so pope wears red shoes)  Dual sovereignty led to friction between those who believed Emperor vs. Pope should have control (to complex, against medieval mindset: looking for clarity)  Mutually exclusive: Church thought they had right to control people on Earth, but Imperial party thought that the Church was responsible for people getting into heaven  Emperor wanted to resurrect Roman Imperial rule (famous case: Emperor Charlemagne) th  By 13 century, debate turned into warfare & division (between Guelf [Papal]/Ghibelline [Imperial])  Popes began to make greater & greater claims of sovereignty, Roman empire was weak & divided (Pope got away w/ a lot) th  Greatest claim to ecclesiastical power (early decades of 12 century), claim that Pope had full power to do almost anything, including interfere in temporal, secular affairs  Church grew in wealth & power b/c of ability to out-organize & out-tax almost any other organization in Western world  early model of centralized gov’t  Began w/ recognition that Church had ability to decide upon marriages, inheritances, wills, etc. (oaths courts of Church became v. important to settling disputes)  Church realized courts were brilliant ways to settle things (people appealed to Rome b/c they were more organized, & thought they’d be given a fairer trial than from a local court)  By 1260s: regularized in “Rota”: central court of Pope (his court) gave a lot of authority to Pope & church headquarters  Creation of central tax system so efficient that it became model for secular systems put in place (bishops & abbots were supposed to give taxes to church headquarters, but church th felt they had the right to collect taxes from all clerics/anyone in church: began @ end of 12 century. Pope needed money for wars, etc.)  Principle of taxation established: they realized they thought they had right to increase taxation  In 29 years pope was collecting 10% of income of all clerics in church to fight war against holy roman emperor, but taxes continued after (roman church was first institution to collect regular income taxes from citizens after roman empire) ability to exercise authority in every parish in Christendom (theory: pope had right to appoint ecclesiastic person to any ecclesiastic job, but difficult to deliver in a world of bad comm. Systems, but papal provisions & reservations were powerful instruments)  Reservations: important ecc. Offices that pope can appoint ppl to (began: right of pope to appoint high ecc. Officials once one of them died, pope interfered so ppl who agreed w/ papal system could be appointed) by 1335, this became a law: pope allowed to appoint anyone he wanted  Provisions: in theory, pope could appoint a parish priest to most distanced parish in Christendom, but w/ improved comm. & centralized gov
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