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HIS109Y1 (536)
Lecture

The French Revolution.pdf

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Department
History
Course
HIS109Y1
Professor
Kenneth Bartlett
Semester
Fall

Description
TheFrenchRevolution November-28-12 3:07PM • FrenchRev-iscomplicated ○ Wasoneof themostdramaticeventsofEuropeanHistory ○ Broughtaboutamuch moremodernworld  1789 was abreakfromthe valuesandinstitutionsofclassicEuropeaninstitutions □ Anewworldwouldformaftertherevolution • Fundamentalchangebecameverydramatic ○ Thingsmustbelookedattodeterminewhytheyhappened ○ Wewouldgofroman absolutemonarchytoa constitutionalmonarchy • 1789 - Francewas adisaster ○ 25millionpeopledividedinto3estates  Clergy-hadtheleastmembership,andthereforeonlyhad100to 150 thousandpeople,replessthan 1% ofthepop □ However,ownedabout10%ofthelandand usuallydidn'thavetopaytaxes  Workedbysurfs,andgoodcare was not takenforthisland  Therewasahugevariationinofwealthinthisarea ◊ Lowerclerics-poorclergymenwereofpeasantstockwhorana parish ◊ HigherClerics-Bishops,Archbishopsusuallycamefrom Aristocrats ► FirstAristocrats,secondClergymen ► Manyof themlivedatVersailleswiththerestofthenobles ► Theywerelookeduponwithdisgustandhatred  Anychurchpropertywasto not betaxedunderanycircumstances  However,theChurchwouldgivemoneyFranceinordertohavetheir landremainoutofthejurisdictionofthecrown  Anti-clericalismbegantobuildup  Nobles-400thousandpeopleinthisclass □ Possessed1/3oftheFrenchlandwasownedbythenobility  Wasgivenfirsttotheknightsinmiddleages  However,therealitychanged,andthenobilitybecameaclassthatreallydidnothing ◊ RealitywasthatthenobilitylivedatVersailles ◊ Manyof themwouldnotvisittheirestatesatall ◊ Theywouldtreatthepeasantshorribly-theysqueezedeverythingtheycouldout ofthepeasants ► Theirwasn'tanyaffectionleftforthenobilityeither ► Atthetop(Noblessedel'epee) -greatcourtnobles,whowerefromthe feudalfamiliesinFrance  Engagedinnothingbutconspicuousconsumption  Thegreatnobleshaddirectaccessto theking  Whenintrouble,thekinghelpedthemout  Theywereveryarrogantselfishnobles.Whichmadethemhatedby thepeople ► ServiceNobility(Noblessedelarobe)-ofBourgeoisorigin,andwouldbuy yourwayintothecivilservice  Theywouldpurchasetheofficethattheywantedtoworkin  Theywereinspirationalandambitious  Theybegantoengageinconspicuousconsumptionaswell – However,thisgroupwasmoreenlightenedthanthehigher nobleclasses – Theywouldalwayshaveaccesstowealth – Therewasalsothelownobility,whichwerehatedthemost ○ 3rd estate-peasantsandurban labourers  Peasantsownedsomeland,butnotenoughtosupportthemselves  However,wasimportantsothattheycouldhavegoodandsellthem □ Advantageswerebalancedbythemanydisadvantages  Someofthemweretheirownfault,whileotherswerethefaultofthearchaictax structure  Frenchpeasantry- wasextremelyconservative ◊ Thedidnotusethenewplantsortechnologythatwereoutforfarming ◊ Extremelytightwhenitcametomoney ◊ Franceal
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