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Canada (511,324)
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HIS109Y1 (536)
Lecture

Napoleon/ Restoration & Renewal

6 Pages
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Department
History
Course Code
HIS109Y1
Professor
Kenneth Bartlett

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Jan. 10 , 2011 Napoleon Only solution was war on a European scale To the conservative leaders of Europe, the war against France was a kind of crusade in which powers of monarchy, legitimacy, authority, & Church to prosecute the root of all of their fears Armies of revolutionary France left leaderless (aristocrats left the country), soldiers left unpaid due to experiments Armies divided by factual disputes, still able to halt the Prussian advance (won by non-artillery officers) French army managed to drive invaders from French soil; one of the heroes who did so was Napoleon, a young artillery officer from Corsica Coup that brought him to power occurred 10 years after the French Revolution (revolution made possible his rise first in the military, & then to supreme power in France) Built on his strengths and reputation for being a battlefield genius Crowned himself the Emperor of the French people (1804), & in exchange for something – distanced himself from the ancient dynasty Saw his crown as not granted by god or the hereditary, but by a grateful people Was right to an extent, celebrated for bringing stability by the French All the enemies of France were defeated, and humiliated, & savaged by Napoleon Only England was undefeated, Napoleon could not imagine war by sea (England had superior seamanship, wanting to avoid confrontation led to his military collapse) Would have to control the English Channel in order to defeat Britain, instead tried the continental system (1806/07) by blocking off England from its mercantile activities and allies (containment & economic warfare) Closing off the continent was almost impossible; smugglers moving from one place to another, thus it could not actually happen In an attempt to force the Russians into the continental system, Napoleon invaded Russia; however they were defeated due to the extreme weather 1813: Napoleon led army to Germany and was defeated; he couldn’t stall the international allies The Bourbon monarchy was restored, Napoleon sent into exile on an island off the coast of Italy Battle of Waterloo, 1815 Napoleon raised an army after returning to Paris from exile in Elba & moved to attack the nearest allied forces stationed in Belgium www.notesolution.com Napoleon lasted 100 days before being defeated by a combined British & Prussian army under the duke of Wellington Made congress of Vienna more complicated, delayed negotiations Napoleon in Control Napoleon remembered as one of the greatest administrators in Europe, created the face of modern France by using the ideals of the French Revolution Coup of 1799: new form of the Republic was proclaimed with a constitution that established a bicameral legislative assembly elected indirectly to reduce the role of elections, executive power in the new government vested in the hands of 3 consuls Napoleon was first consul & directly controlled the entire executive authority of government Code Napoleon, 1804: preserved most of the revolutionary gains, single set of laws for France (France had 300 different sets of legal systems prior to the revolution) Region of Honour: Created a French system of education, designed the lysee (reserved places for those who were poor) Wanted the talent that existed in France to be utilized, was a self-made man himself Economically, did not use the ideals of the Enlightenment All decisions to be centralized, had to be central control of all aspects of French life Traditional mercantilist Unable to galvanize the French economy Made peace with the church which provided spiritual comfort for the ØmigrØs, Catholicism not reestablished as the state religion, but rather recognized Protected Jews, rid France of ghettos & integrated Jews into mainstream society Armies destroyed the ancien regime in every country that they were notorious, kings removed from thrones & replaced with republics (replaced republics with kings, queens when he became emperor) Napoleon’s Empire & Europe’s Response Italians and Poles enjoyed a unified state under French protection Other nations under French jubilation saw it as destroying their traditions; nobility & clergy everywhere lost their special privileges For example, the Spanish detested the French www.notesolution.com Spread of French revolutionary principles was an important factor in the development of liberal traditions in these countries Abolition of feudal rights (inefficient) Stop on the road to progress, institutionalization of the ideas of the philosophes The Fall of Napoleon 1812: decided to invade Russia, however Napoleon’s army was defeated – Russians torched their own villages & countryside to prevent Napoleon’s army from finding food & forage Napoleon’s army abandoned Moscow & made the “Great Retreat” across Russia in terrible winter conditions This military disaster then led to a war of liberation all over Europe Exiled to Elba, the Bourbon monarchy was restored in France under Louis XVIII Jan. 12 , 2011 Restoration & Renewal What was to happen after the defeat of Napoleon, how to integrate the good things he did, what position did France play in Europe? Was France a dangerous place of revolution that had to be isolated, or a victim of the revolution? Napoleon succeeded in attracting the old orders of the ancien regime, he tried to counteract some of the worst events of the Terror & the revolution Most objectionable aspects of the ancien regime were swept away Napoleonic wars brought about the influence of the revolution and the Enlightenment throughout the continent Influ
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