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Realignment of Europe / The Thirty Years War

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Kenneth Bartlett

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HIS109 Nov. 1, 2010 Realignment of Europe Trade with Constantinople (continuation with the roman empire) contact with the sophisticated money economies of the Islamic world Stimulated political and economic change Financial mechanisms (shipbuilding, navigation, insurance) made the states of Italy rich giving rise to the experimentation of society during the Renaissance Series of events shattered this for Italy 1553: Constantinople fell to the Ottoman Turks; Islamic Turks grew to be the most powerful state in Europe Natural result of the Ottoman victory was war, occasioned by politics, economics, and religion For the first century, the Christians were unable to stop the spread of Islam in the West Trade was taken along with territory (Genoese Empire in the East taken down) Mohammed II Sent a fleet to conquer the peninsula that sticks out of Italy (what will happen to the rest of Christendom on the continent) Convert to Islam or be killed Terror on the Italian peninsula terrified Christians; they didn’t know what to do Seemed as if the Ottomans would drive all Christian forces & settlements out of the Mediterranean Islamic Empire spread an arc from the Balkans to the coast of North Africa Ottomans seemingly invincible Christians were terrified; in the context of this world they felt as if God was punishing them Suleiman the Magnificent After establishing control over the southern Mediterranean began to move to central and eastern Europe Battle of Mohacs (1526): annihilation of the Christian army, there was now nothing to stop the Turks Set siege to Vienna; siege was eventually broken Matter of time before the army would regroup Turks set up a portable outside of Vienna Once they abandon this city, they set fire to it so that the Christians could not benefit from it – this led to the introduction of coffee to Europe after the fire emits the scent of coffee beans Shift in Power The shift of economic, political power to eastern seaboard not an accident Turks forever destroyed sea trade between Europe and the eastern seaboard, which was once the industry of the Italians The Christians lost the benefits that had once created so much wealth Drove military powers to look beyond the Mediterranean towards the Atlantic Required different routes to the East; had to get to the place that sold the goods the Christians needed Going through the Mediterranean was too risky Henry the navigator (king of Portugal) hoped to discover a lost Christian community in central Africa (this was a myth) Portuguese reach the tip of Africa, the Romans never went beyond Saharan Africa 1496: Vasco de Gama sailed around Africa to trade with India Ability to sail from the Atlantic seaboard to the east meant that the Portuguese had an advantage The trade that made the Mediterranean so rich shifted to the world of the Atlantic, the Portuguese and Spanish Before 1479 Spain was fragmented into petty warring kingdoms, shared peninsula with the Portuguese and Islamic peoples Spain splits into two kingdoms: Castile and Aragon (both share Catholicism) Crusades in Spain successful, the Moors were driven out of Granada Spanish Inquisition Spanish Inquisition was given enormous authority because of the need to root out heresy, Islam, and Judaism on the continent Renewed Catholic zeal Was a political decision that would unite a previously fragmented peninsula The hatred of the Turks was so great that these were acts of Christian allegiance This idea of Christendom seemed to be so focused in Spain that it overwhelmed all other traditions Economic balance of power shift from the Mediterranean to the Atlantic seaboard Victories of the new world to be victories of Christendom Empire of Spain became enormously powerful and rich Portuguese Empire found by accident Rise of the Hapsburg Empire Political organization of the Hapsburg Empire – created a single, imperial trade zone Low-countries identified as money marts, such as Antwerp (this took trade away from the Italian cities) Mining was encouraged, and the development of secondary industries such as shipbuilding allowing the Hapsburg to behave as if they can impose an element of unity on Europe The Hapsburg believed they were creating a Christendom that could withstand the Turks, however; the Protestants were seemingly more on the side of the Turks Economic world also began to expand with the concentration of wealth from the new world By 1485 the money mart of Antwerp developed into the stock market By 1520 numerous ships going in and out of the city of Amsterdam All of this ensured that victory would be theirs Hapsburg Empire and Spain became the new economic engines of a revitalized European economy France potentially the richest country; (rich, fertile lands, sophisticated government) remained weak due to the effect of religious wars that weakened the kingdom; allowing the Hapsburg Empire to rise Europe shifted fundamentally; the Reformation was only one element of this shift The Hapsburgs tried to take control of this The forces of civilization completely different by end of 16 century The Hapsburg still ruled over some countries Realignment of power required had to be Europe-wide and would also have to take into account the Turks Using religion as the ideology to separate people, in making political decisions would evaporate Europe a very different place following the 30 years war HIS109 Nov. 3, 2010 The Thirty Years War Which state would be the great power that would determine the fate of the continent Europe-wide conflict, power of the dynastic monarchy Balance of power was fundamentally different from the beginning of the Thirty Years War The rise of Lutheranism resulted in a number of wars and realignments, political allegiances New kind of way to determine allegiance Broke out initially as an attempt to look at religion as an instrument of authority and national identification Broke out in Bohemia (modern Czech Republic) first was that was continent w
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