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HIS109Y1 (520)

The Church

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University of Toronto St. George
Kenneth Bartlett

Date: September 26, 2012 The Church Roman Catholic Church – owned estates and land → power 700-850 – false document composed by monks – Emperor Constantine suffered from leprosy and on his deathbed converted to Christianity → transferred the power over realm to the Pope → has the authority of the Emperor and spiritual power ⇓ dual sovereignty → tension between Pope (clergy) and Emperors (nobility) Italy → two factions: Guelphs (Pope) and Ghibellines (Holy Roman Emperor) Charlemagne (d.814): o first Emperor in Western Europe since the fall of the Roman Empire four centuries earlier o 800 AD - crowned as Roman Catholic Emperor by Pope Leo III on Christmas Day → power given by the Pope, could be taken away by the Pope o through his foreign conquests and internal reforms, Charlemagne encouraged the formation of a common European identity Early decades of 13 century – Pope has fullness of power/ claims Plenitudo potestatis: o centralization of church o jurisdictional power o secular affairs Church’s income ← taxes (as landowners), clerical fees (marriage, baptism, funereal, etc), indulgence, legal fees Law – church courts – standard means of procedure; fair judgment vs local courts – clearly biased Central taxation system – collecting money not only from bishops, abbots, and cardinals, but also from all clergy (village priests and monks) ⇓ started as a cause for “Holy War” → 1/40 of incom
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