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Lecture 9

HIS109Y1 Lecture 9: Lecture 9-Nothern Humanism-Oct 12

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University of Toronto St. George
Kenneth Bartlett

Lecture 8: Northern Humanism Erasmus (1446?1536) New Testament Thomas More Utopia (1516) Johan Gutenberg c.1450 printing press Most republics succumbed to monarchal rule The idea of the republic ended 1530: Florence was a monarchy 1537: Hereditary monarchy Papacy had concerns: overwhelmed by advance of reformation Italian humanism and the petri dish was beginning to change in a way that Northern Europeans would recognize French (and later German and Spanish) soldiers stayed in Italy and stayed there Read literature etc., brought with them another cultural model and a way of thinking that was grounded in an appreciation for classical antiquity; desire to use this in the context of their own lives Empire and monarchy were deeply entrenched in cultural perspective suited the government and economic structure Most of Italy was still feudal Other elements that required humanism to flourish Rise of money economy Intellectual models were of the old feudal world Church sustained what learning there was in the collapse of Rome Educational establishment dominated by church and clergy Europe was still under a theological lens Secularism in Italian states had to alter in order to fit this new world Ideas of humanism were flexible; institutions of the North were flexible Not look at Pagan Rome, but look at period of early church fathers who were trained in Latin, but were Christian Impossible to ignore old traditions 1450(ish): Gutenbergs discovery of the printing press The expense of learning could become cheaper due to the printing of books on a mass scale Europe seized to be bound by its own geography LD trade (silks, spices, slaves): economic activity reduced, more dangerous etc. bc of the control of the Mediterranean by pirates Europe could not rely of the mediaterra
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