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The Reformation

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University of Toronto St. George
Anthony Cantor

The Reformation  People who are working in the real world offer more to society than monks  Humanism was useful and appropriate, o had a very specific agenda.  Spiritual way o Northern Europe – individual personal relationship with God  Self actualization  As cities grew (large urban centres), the people that inhabited them had been peasants a generation before.  Seeing a time where conflict was inevitable o Why it broke out the way it did  The Roman Church was weakened o By humanists, who challenged the practices of the church o More and more by groups who were trying to find spiritual comfort in the vernacular even though they weren't supposed to, looking for leaders who would give them directions. o That the Latin mass in the church was no longer enough.  This started the revolution  Revolution Broke out on the German Royal home lands o A large group of fragmented land  Rule of an emperor  Each one of the individual princes was worried about the Emperor who would take power from them.  The fragmentation of Germany would make it so that the revolution could start without a power to crush it Martin Luther o started the revolution o Born in 1483, Saxons o Father had risen in mining, deep mines. o A generation before had been peasants o Rude, had a dick of a dad o Was the way he was because of the area he lived in and what he had to deal with  His father, such as Petrarch's father, was to send his boy to law school o Martin went to law school because he didn’t really have a choice or wanted to o Got hit from lightning, prayed to sedan, ‘if his life was spared, he would become a monk’ o From the time of his childhood, he was obsessed by his own sense of guilt and sin  Had a desire to gain a spiritual comfort  Thought he was a horrible person for sinning so much o Thought that through practicing all of the ridiculous religious monk ideals, he could gain some form of peace. It didn’t work, he still thought that he was a sinful person o Became a superb scholar, and a scriptural scholar. o Sent to a university from his church  Wittenberg o became a scholar because of this  University (Wittenberg ) o The reformation of the church o ‘that man that was so obsessed with sinfulness he felt that God had to get after him and others for his and their sinfulness’. Something like that  The just shall live by his faith  God justifies us in faith alone o Determined in his personal revolution  His faith alone was enough to merit salvation  All the traditional practices of Roman Catholicism was useless. All you had to have was faith.  Started a revolution in others from that spark.  It was small and useless.  Indulgences o Indulgences were needed to build a church in the Vatican, (check)  Indulgences were used so that you could pay money to get to heaven  Burning off sin by spending time in purgatory. Money would buy people less time in purgatory. Treasury of Merit.  Mother Teresa was so good, that she had ‘extra goodness’. It went to the pope. The treasury of Merit got all of the good that people had as extra. He then sold it to people through indulgences  Luther hated this. It took what he thought he had to be saved, and sold it for cash.  95 theses o Luther nailed to the church door the 95 thesis, October 1517  Challenged the Church to drop this idea o In Rome, the pope was leo the 10h o Everyone heard of this monk who was challenging the indulgences o The more Luther wrote and talked about it, the further he got from traditional ideas o 1520, denied the efficacy of good worth, o was excommunicated by the pope for challenging the ideas too much.  after the Excommunication th o Charles the 15 summoned Luther to the Worms (1921)  Diet of Worms, an imperial parliament  Luther had to answer to the crimes against him  Duke of Saxony liked Luther, was very annoyed by the people punishing him  Duke of Saxony took Luther and hid him in one of his castles.  While hidden, he wrote a lot. Tracks and pamphlets, thanks to the printing press, he got his point across  Luther took a personal solution to a personal problem, then institutionalized it, and became it a general solution to a general problem. o His ideas started a new version of religion o Spurred by his tracks and revolutiona
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