English Civil War
James I (1603-25)
Charles I (1625-49)
James II (1685-88)
In early modern, less sophisticated societies, religion is the voice of change
o No structure for political or social change, only divine intervention
Vocabulary of religion was about ideology, how the individual applied to the state, how the
state had power
English Civil War1642–1651)
Result from tensions from religion after the reformation, not just on the continent, but in
Edward the VI, attacked the authority of bishops
All gave way to a constructive compromise, to look at the problems for a middle way so all
citizens could embrace and accept
Elizabeth I was extraordinary
o Able to keep factions of court under control
o Image of being Almost divine herself
o Had the ability to recognize talent. Her choice of ministers was remarkable, these
people did her bidding; they weren't nobles or rich, they were people who were
servants of the crown.
Became relatively homogeneous
o Became one country, not a collection of different states with different economic
and political structures
o Able to identify itself as a single country with a single queen and single culture,
o New centralization, (Shakespeare was a cause and effect of it)
o Role of the monarchy; place of the crown was important, especially while exercised
by the queen.
o Reformation in England was from the crown,
o An island. Important because it prevented involvement in neighboring warfare
o Internally, Elizabeth was able to manipulate the problem to her benefit,
The queen gave an unreal perception of what happened during this time
o A silent revolution
In almost every aspect of its life The Silent Revolution (I like to think of the Silence to remember. Imagine that, the silence behind the
Role of the Nobility tended to be a very different focus in England,
The advancement of warfare (cannons, sea battles). The Nobility could no longer define
themselves as a warrior class, result from the War of the Roses. Nobility was little and its
primary purpose was challenged because it was turning to just a hereditary officer class. The
practice was still to have great nobles, but they were distrusted. The Tutor Policy, from the War
of Roses, weakened the Nobility.
o Elizabeth created few new titles.
o There were fewer than sixty families that carried titles in England.
o On the continent, you were born Noble, but you were recognized by being allowed to
sit in the house of lords. An element of all the classic ideas, but the rank was only
recognized by the house.
o Only the eldest son is Noble. Families could become extinct because of this.
All of Elizabeth’s chief council, people who did her work, were not representatives of the
Noble. They were people dependent on the crown, people who had the work themselves up.
Even the tutors themselves started as gentry families who made good choices.
The Long Parliament limited the power of the Crown.
o the House of Commons
Result from Act of Parliament
o Wasn’t forgotten. Parliament represented all of England and parliament was ruled by
the House of Commons
Parliament was necessary for the country to operate in the most basic way. Recognized from
Only allowed to be enforced though parliament. Crown no longer allowed to decide.
England was becoming more of a parliamentary state, the crown could only work under
Nobles had to catch the Queens attention
Expensive, but necessary. The crown was recognized as a sense of honor and dignity, and
everyone wanted to get a piece of that. English Nobility didn’t have the same kind of access that
the continental Nobility had. The way the court was structured, it was not the way to give away
o The Nobility then couldn't get the money back and so it started to languish. There were
very few great Nobles, and very few of them had influence. They weren’t sources of
enormous wealth anymore and had no access to particular powers.
Another group started to fill what the Nobility originally had, a power that started to take
over the country. o The Middle Class
The Middle Class
Anyone who had estates and could live as a Noble could be recognized as one. In England, you
had to be recognized by the crown.
The mercantile class was close, but not exact
Middle class in England
o Urban Mercantile
Urban, mobile, intelligent, wealthy, merchants
o Country Gentry
Family farmers, close to urban elite, enough money
Twenty thousand, owned vast estates.
Growing in every way.
People who had cash to spend, to consolidate estates. Benefited from the economic structure of
Inflation that characterized the sixteenth century, benefitted the individuals though bankrupted
o the Gentry weren’t buying but were selling, so they just got richer
Lived on their estates, on the manor houses where their tenants worked. Good managers. Lived
close to the work
o Good management
Bought more land instead of splurging on useless fancy shit
Developed the capital that developed the English ca