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Industrialization I.docx

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Anthony Cantor

Industrialization I (1760-1850) -changes in pop. & pop. density, use of lands (presence of railroads & mining) structural transformations -before the Fr. rev. & change happening as Europe descends into the upheaval brought by the rev. & Napoleon Lecture Outline I. Definition of terms: growth; structural change; II. Escape from “Malthusian trap”: pop. growth & real wages III. Technological change IV. Great Divergence V. Why Europe? Why Britain? -how industrialization, Fr. rev. & Napoleonic period are related: Ex. Continental system to block British imports from entering the continent. Britain was able to defy this system b/c of its overseas colonies & markets (has to do w/ new modes of production, employment, new supplies, use of land & resource) Ex. Ideologies that arose to define 19 century arose from the rev. & industrialization (liberalism, nationalism, etc.) -Fr. Rev. & industrialization work together to mark transition to modern Europe (forms of social & political organization) stem from new conditions, social conditions, consciousness -“Industrial Revolution” isn’t as obvious as a revolution, term was coined by Fr. observers in 1820s -not same kind of phenomenon all over Europe, quick change industrialization was actually a long, gradual process -huge changes in how work was done, products were made, things & people were transported, how people lived -social upheaval, cultural change, political change -“growth”: in GDP (gross domestic product; value of goods & services produced by a nation), industrial production (amount of goods produced) growth in overall value of things produced & amount of things produced through some form of manufacturing -“structural change”: fall in percentage of people employed in agriculture (this decline is significant), change in patterns of trade (being traded, ex. leading industry of cotton textiles, but in 1750 it was only 1% of Brit. Exports, 1800: 40%), pop. growth, wages, productivity -“Malthusian trap”: model in terms of pop., wages & productivity that had applied to most of history until around the time when Malthus wrote about it (industrialization broke this model for the first time) Thomas Malthus (1766-1834) -objected to the idea of history as limitless societal improvement -“The power of pop. is indefinitely greater than the power in the earth to produce subsistence for man.” the pop. grows faster than resources: the poor must live w/ less, there is starvation & disease, eventually pop. goes down, price of labour goes up (fewer workers) continuous cycle -as pop. grows: food becomes more scarce & expensive, & the jobs they can get become lower-paying in cycle there are checks on pop. to prevent it out-growing resources (war, famine, disease) -relationship among population, resources & wages -“real wages” means conceptualizing wages in terms of what you can buy w/ that money (purchasing power of income as opposed to amount of money), Malthus: growing pop. causes cost of living to go up, wages are going down (decline in real wages) harder to raise a family, fewer children surviving, leveled off pop., led cycle to re-start Malthus proposed birth control, delayed marriage to control this cycle (but he didn’t anticipate how technological change would change this cycle) -IR: income per person increases vastly -“Malthusian trap” breaking: changing cycle is a huge break w/ what had come before (his law works for centuries of pre-Industrial society), IR: higher pop. coincided w/ higher real wages & more resources available: Industrialization permitted massive pop. expansion w/o a decline in wages, access to resources, etc. III. Technological Change -most were based on coal (before it had relied on human power, animal power or wooddepending on fertility of earth’s surface) -Malthus’s vision applied in an era when land was limited but had to provide everything for the pop. th -18 century: Britain was running out of forests but there was a lot of coal underground & there were new technologies that allowed for collection of the coal ongoing source of input for production not dependent on land: frees up land to feed more people & be used for other things w/o running out of fuel -new transportation technology brought Europe clo
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