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HIS109Y1 (520)

Territories, States and Citizens.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Anthony Cantor

-Fichte’s idea of nationalism (the nation as an organic people) had more of an influence in the second th half of the 19 century -twin threat to dynastic/aristocratic rule of A-H Empire: Liberal threat & Nationalist threat - having Liberal constitutional rule by peoples who wanted states for distinct groups who wanted national consciousness -Liberal & Nationalist revolt in the 1820s & 1830s calling for Liberal rule & based on Nationalism, against the dynastic system enforced by the Congress of Vienna Ex. Belgium: revolt in Brussels in 1820 – 1) Nationalist revolt against Dutch rule 2) Once Belgian independence was secured, it was secured under a Liberal constitution Ex. Italy: states were divided into many kingdoms – people in Italy who were arguing for National Unification, they were arguing against dynastic rule, the Italian-speaking parts should be given self-determination, for one united state for Italians (all legitimate authority stemming from the nation) -nationalist revolts in Italy were usually put down by Austria -movements in Italy went underground -idea of National consciousness went along w/ Liberal ideas (the people are sovereign) -Congress of Vienna: powers of Europe would support each other in putting down any hint of another Fr. Rev. 1848 Revolutions -French Second Republic (1848-1852) -1846-47: bad harvests (discontent among peasants & workers unable to afford food) -King Louis Philippe started out being liberal-minded, but in 1848 he opposes any liberal reforms (widening of scope of constitutional protections) -1848 Paris: 40% of workforce was unemployed -middle-class reformers started holding banquets to rally support, which gov’t reacted harshly to, leading to a brawl (famous banquet on Washington’s birthday: brawl breaks out & 1848 rev. is underway, the national guard took side of people in revolt & turned against their own gov’t) -declared a Second Republic, but didn’t last v. long b/c the interest of middle-class workers started to become v. diff., wasn’t enough common ground in terms of their social vision for the new republic to hold it together meaningfully -sparked revolutions all over Europe: -Vienna: students, middle-class, reformers, workers -1848: Metternich is still in power; a fan of censorship -students, middle-class reformers & workers drove Metternich out of Vienna -Prague: Pan-Slavic Congress (1848) -1848: “Springtime of the Peoples” in addition to liberal constitutions, nationalities firmly asserted right to national self-determination & sovereignty (consent of gov’t is important) -Prussia: Frederick William IV (r. 1840-1861) -Frankfurt Parliament -movement in Germany to unite all German peoples (in Austria, Prussia, other states) in the framework of a Liberal state, not listening to the rulers of those states -met in 1848 in St. Paul’s Cathedral, the flag of Germany est. by Liberal reformers -debated whether the non-German speaking parts of Prussia/A-H should be part of German state: decided they shouldn’t -debated what position of Jews & other ethnic groups should be: in accordance w/ Liberal principles, they decided they were part of German society & should have equal civil rights & participation -Liberal movement to overthrow monarchical rule & unify the German states -biggest debate: who should lead this new nation, decided it should be a constitutional monarchy w/ a crown offered to one of the German rulers most aligned w/ Liberal principles, wanted to approach the King of Prussia -originally King of Prussia agreed (saw that other rulers were being overthrown) -as 1848 Rev. started to crumble, meaningful push-back by Russia & rulers in Austria (Emperor & gov’t) proved more able to hang on, the King of Prussia decided not to accept a crown from the gutter -King of Prussia sent troops into Frankfurt to crush the Frankfurt parliament -national unification in Italy, Germany, France, of Slavic people looked like a reality -1850: forces of order & conservatism were controlling again b/c Liberals, radicals, Socialists, middle-class, workers they didn’t have enough common ideas to keep it together -Frankfurt parliament: debate between large German solution & small German solution -some people said unified Germany should be small w/o Austria -some people said unified Germany should be large, parliament went along -1870-1871: small German solution under leadership of Prussia that excludes Austria from being part of German state Toward Italian Unification -Carbonari -Liberal & Nationalist revolts in 1831 -Giuseppe Mazzini (1805-1871): Romantic Nationalist -Count Camillo di Cavour (1810-1861) Unification of Germany -Large-German or Small-German Solution? -the Frankfurt parl. (part of 1848 rev. wanting to unite German ppls into a unified German states) debated about what the state should look like: large/small model -large model meant it would include Austria (all of Austrian Empire or German-speaking part) -arg. For large: if the nation is sovereign & has the right to determine governance, that has to include all German-speakers -small: do we want
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