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HIS109Y1 (536)


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Anthony Cantor

Socialism I. Utopian Socialism II. Marx & Marxism III. Social democracy as mass politics Utopian Socialism (other doc.) -Marx believed more scientific socialism was needed Karl Marx (1818-1883) -w/ Friedrich Engels, Manifesto of the Communist Party (1848) -Marx came from a middle class family in Western Germany, descended from a long line of rabbis, but his father had converted to Protestantism -became an atheist, radical journalist -had a lot of ideas thinking about the philosophy of Hegel -academic career fell apart b/c of his reputation of a critic of censorship -1842: became editor of a newspaper founded by a liberal businessman -he & his wife began a lifelong exile from Germany -went to Paris & became better acquainted w/ socialist literature & met Engels -Prussians pressured the Fr. gov’t to expel him from Paris -he was expelled & settled in Brussels -1843: he resigned in effort to keep the paper afloat -“Materialist conception of history” -1845: developed this in Brussels -you can’t understand law & politics in society by looking at them in society or by looking at how the human mind develops, these structures came from the material constructions of life -humanity gets into certain relationships (& classes) that are based on material forces (how they’re produced, your relationship to them), above that basis there is superstructure (ex. political, legal, religious, artistic, philosophic ideas) creates forms of consciousness -“Alienation” -he saw alienation as a fundamental problem in modern industrial society -“alienation”: the division of labour, w/ private property, made men the slaves instead of the masters of production, forcing each man to play a certain role, bringing man into conflict w/ others at each other’s expense cooperative instincts can’t be realized b/c you’re forced to compete to become enslaved to the social logic of these economic relati
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