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Interwar Period.docx

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Anthony Cantor

Europe Between the Wars -Revolutions (in the central powers) -Reparations & Inflation -Film, Literature & the Arts -The Soviet Union: From Lenin to Stalin Revolution -towards late 1917 & 1918, into 1919, there were a series of revolutions -populations of powers about to be defeated (Germany, A-H) were rising up -early Nov. 1918, socialists in German state of Bavaria proclaim a Bavarian-Soviet republic on the model of the Russian Rev. -1918: threat of German-wide revolution -mutinies of German sailors, the German chancellor calling for Kaiser Wilhelm to abdicate -Nov.9, 1918: German republic proclaimed -social Democrats feared a Bolshevik-style revolution & they tried to undercut more revolutionary sentiments by forming a new German Republic -German Republic was unstable from the Left & Right from the beginning -labourers pressured it to be more radical, others thought there should be an authoritarian gov’t -didn’t develop political institutions to develop long-term stability -the new republic needed army support, which was offered on the condition that the military could have free reign to police the country against Bolshevik-style revolution (the republic became prisoner of the army) -becomes known as the Weimar Republic, b/c that is where they created a constitution, which lasted from 1919-1933 -militant communists rising up against police & soldiers, who murdered Communist leaders -unstable environment while trying to have elections -also revolutions in A-H -communists & Bolsheviks rose up here as well -real threat of workers revolution (b/c of similar success in Russia) -right-wing admiral in Hungary Reparations & Inflation -The Economic Consequences of the Peace by John Maynard Keynes (1919) -War debt -France calculated that Germany owed it $ 200 billion US -Britain & France also had borrowed a lot from the US, so they wanted to get that money from Germany -Germany claimed this demand strained their already weak economic problems already had weak economy: Kaiser had refused to raise taxes before the Treaty of Versailles -the new German Republic was an experiment & couldn’t afford to pay the debt -starting in 1921: the French occupied several German cities, holding out for the reparations -Treaty of Rapallo (1922) -Germany signed treaty w/ new Russian Communist state, b/c both countries had alienated its Western allies -French occupation of the Ruhr (1923) -1923: Germany didn’t deliver some coal promised to France, s
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