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The Cold War World.docx

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Anthony Cantor

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The Cold War World -Ending WWII -Visions for the post-war settlement -Two superpowers/ bi-polar world -Rebuilding Europe -Divided Germany -New international institutions & alliances -40-year struggle between two opposed ideological camps Ending WWII -Turning points: El Alamein & Stalingrad -Surrender of Italy (1943) -Italians & Germans in North Africa forced to surrender to first great allied victory in early 1943 -British & Americans could use North Africa as a springboard to attack Italy -1942-43: German forces tried to concentrate on the south of the Soviet Union, on the oil fields -German tanks in June 1942 began to push to the south, Soviets held ground -Hitler’s generals wanted to bypass Stalingrad, Hitler overruled them intense hand-to-hand fighting between Soviets & Germans -Feb. 1943: German army was frozen, malnourished, & they surrendered -Soviet troops were able to advance by the end of the winter (Stalingrad was the farthest the Germans were able to get into the Soviet Union) -Mussolini was fairly discredited -began to lose so much domestic support as Britain & the US invaded Italy that the King of Italy dismissed him as Prime Minister (though he didn’t really have the power to do this) -dissident Fascists supported the King -new gov’t came in that signed a treaty w/ the allies in Sept. 1943 (a surrender) -Hitler wasn’t happy w/ the Allies having a base in Italy, & sent German troops in to seize territories, & they conquered the Northern part of Italy, w/ the Allies in the South -Germans used Mussolini as a puppet in Northern Italy -American & British troops fight up the Italian peninsula, capturing Rome in June 1944 -Second front/D-Day (6 June 1944) -Germany had set up a puppet gov’t in Vichy France, Soviets were pushing Germans back from the east, British & Americans pushing them from the south of Italy -Stalin began to press the Western European allies to open a new front, a new focal point of fighting so not all the pressure was on Soviet troops (who had higher casualties) Stalin resented the British & American invasion in Italy (that it was too small a move) -Allies opened a second front in France by landing at Normandy on June 6, 1944 able to land over 2 million soldiers over next few months -August 1944: another Allied landing in southern France -Paris was liberated in late August 1944, & the Free French forces of de Gaulle played a major role in the liberation -push -Soviet advances -Spring 1944: liberated Crimea… -took Poland, Romania & Bulgaria -German troops started withdrawing from the Balkans so they wouldn’t be surrounded by the soviets -Dec. 1944: Germans tried to mount one last offensive through Belgium, but the Allies crossed the Rhine in March 1945 (Battle of the Bulge) -April 1945: captured Vienna & were attacking Berlin -Germany would have to be thoroughly defeated April 30, 1945: Hitler shot himself in Berlin -May 7: last German forces surrendered (war in Europe was over) -Atomic bombs on Hiroshima & Nagasaki (August 1945) -war in the Pacific went on until Aug. 1945 when the US dropped two atomic bombs in Japan -end of war meant the stage was set for rebuilding & creating a new postwar order along lines of what allies had planned while fighting Planning the Post-War World -Atlantic Charter (August 1941) -Roosevelt & Churchill met off coast of Newfoundland to agree on principles to guide the development of Europe after the war similar to Wilson’s principles after WWI -joint statement that called for self-determination, democratic gov’ts, creation of international peace-keeping organization -US, Britain, France & Soviet Union -Tehran Conference (November 1943) -in Iran -British & Soviets jointly occupied Iran during the war -capital of Tehran was suitable place for Churchill, Roosevelt & Stalin to meet -planned for projected invasion of Western Europe (Stalin agreed to fight Japan once the Nazis were defeated) -1944: Soviet forces entered Poland, occupied Romania & Hungary -got allies to open new front, for Soviets to fight Japan, finding way to militarily defeat the enemy, but the prospect of a Soviet Empire became of great worry to the rest of the allies -Yalta Conference (February 1945) -in Crimean peninsula -Soviet & Western forces were at this point closing in on Berlin -Stalin wanted to impose a harsh peace on Germany, to punish them for the suffering that Germany had caused, & the allies agreed at the soviets’ greater suffering,
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