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HIS109Y1 (520)


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University of Toronto St. George
Anthony Cantor

Liberalism: Lecture Outline  'classical liberalism' vs. contemporary liberalism  political and economic liberalism  characteristics of liberalism  legacy of the French revolution  a Middle-class ideology  liberal "forefathers" and key thinkers two ideologies developed during the Congress of Vienna  Liberalism and Nationalism liberalism couldn't exist without the French revolution and the class ideologies of the industrial revolution. The transformation of the French revolution, the stages that lead to the industrial revolution. Through roughly 100 years. It began in the 19th century. Liberalism: 19th century ideas. Classical liberalism is the liberalism of this time. Contemporary liberalism is modern day liberalism for western society.  main difference in classical to contemporary liberalism is the scope of the idea of liberty; what aspects of life does this idea of liberty include. o classical: in the political and economic sphere.  total freedom in the economic sphere.  liberty means to act without constraint. You can't be thrown in jail for no reason, have a choice for how to be governed, you could trade any way you wanted, you could pay your workers any way you wanted. No government intervention was the way to develop the best society with the most freedom and justice.  Free trade, no minimum wage, no regulation of the economic sphere o Contemporary: the need for the intervention in the economy; some regulation and rules in the service in individual liberty. What did 19th century liberalism include?  preserve ideals of French revolution and Enlightenment o of the many legacies of the French revolution, the liberal tradition is one of the most important.  Society should promote individual liberty  constitutions o had to have a clear set of rules and limitations  "tyranny of the majority" (Mill)  Free trade/laissez faire o trade should be able to happen anyway with the agreement between the two participating o the government's approach should be to step back and let trade do whatever it wants. Those who enjoyed the values of the French revolution when it first started, liberals say that is an attempt to create a political order based on enlightenment and the French revolution. liberal ideas come from the beginning of the French revolution liberals value the principles of the French revolution, but they didn't value the radicalism or extremism. It had to be modified. liberals were scared from the French revolution Benjamin Constant (1967-1830)  "liberty of the Ancients" vs.
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