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HIS109Y1 (520)

The Cold War World

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University of Toronto St. George
Anthony Cantor

Origins of the cold war: lecture Outline  ending WWII  visions for the post-war settlement  two superpowers/bi-polar world  rebuilding Europe  Dividing Germany  New international institutions and alliances ending WWII  turning points: el Alamein and Stalingrad  surrender of Italy (1943)  Second front/D-day (6 June 1944)  soviet advances  atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki (August 1945)  the British and Americans could use North America as a launching pad to move up the Italian peninsula  Hitler's generals wanted to give up Stalingrad and wanted to move around the allies to the oil fields, but Hitler attacked the city directly  Two great russian armies came down to Stalingrad and surrounded the Germans  German army was frozen, malnurished, because they were stuck and they surrendered in 1943.  Soviet troops were able to advance,  Stalingrad was the furthest German got into Russia  after disaster in north Africa, El alamein  Mussolini was discredited; lost a lot of domestic support. The king of Italy dismissed Mussolini as prime minister; that couldn't actually happen because he was a dictator but he was able to because there were enough fascists who believed that he was not doing well enough so they got together with the king to kick him out.  new Government came in, signed a treety with the allied forcecs, surrender  Italy surrendered because of this  Hitler didn't think this was a good idea. They didn't think that Allies should have a base right below Germany  Germans took over certain areas of their former ally, Rome  Northern half of Italy; they propped up Mussolini as a puppet government; the Germans say that Italy didn't actually surrender  Stalin believed that they had to fight the Germans on two fronts. Not only from the north but also the West  Stalin pushed to create a new focal point of fighting so that not all of the pressure was on the soviet forces in the East  Stalin resented the idea that the allies were pushin the forces up away from Africa  Pressuring the west to open up a new front  by invading Normandy they created a new front; D-Day  able to establish a beach front; landing of 2 million soldiers;  Free france forces; group of people who didn't surrender with the rest of France  While the allies were pushing from the west, Soviets were pushing from the east  German troops started to withdrawl in fear of being captured  Germans attempted, through Belgium, but they lost  Allies learned a lesson from WWI o if you create a spoken peace treaty, it can create future problems o there was no question that Germany woudl have to be thuroughly defeated to the point of surrender o that's what happened in May  April 30th, 1945, Hitler killed himself by shooting himself  August 1945, first nukes  end of the war meant that stage was set for rebuilding, for putting the world back together, and creating a new world order for what the Allies envisioned and planned Planning the Post-War World  Atlantic Charter (August 1941) o called for the international peace keeping society o free people? o other things  Tehran Conference (November 1943) o first attempt to create a solution for post war o Held in Iran o first time the big 3 met to decide o planned for the projected invasion of eastern Europe o Stalin agreed to join in the fight for japan because the allies opened up the second front o about: getting the allies to open up a new front, getting the Soviets join in the fight for Japan; o became great worry by expanding Soviet powers  Yalta Conference (February 1945) o had soviet and western forces closing in on Germany o what's gonig to happen to the territories after Germany surrendered was the question of the day o Sta
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