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Realignment of Europe.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Anthony Cantor

Realignment of Europe Mohammed II (1451-81) Suleiman the Magnificent (d. 1566) Mohacs (1526) Lepanto (1571) Granada Vasco da Gama -almost every aspect of European life was being changed due to pressure -Europe had v. diff. boundaries & concepts of the state after the Reformation; new states were created & old ones were dissolved during the religious wars -not only was Europe internally unstable, but instability was being thrust upon the European continent -European tendency to address fundamental issues through warfare - shift of power away from the Mediterranean at end of 15 century, becoming a v. dangerous place, Atlantic seacoast was new centre of action -beginning of return of long-distance trade, Italy developed economically as a result & was able to spread concentrated wealth through much of Euro. Continent (beginning of rise of financial empires) facilitation of trade involved development of vehicles (banking, insurance, ship-building, etc.) that would permit faraway economies to grow -1453: fall of Constantinople to Ottoman Turks (eventually all of Byzantine Empire fell to Ottoman Turks & much of the wealth from Venice was effected b/c of the trade they did w/ the Byzantines) led to war (to protect trading connections) the Christians lost, the Turks were almost always victorious b/c they had zeal for expansion, under the sultan Mohammed II, the expansion of Ottoman Turks went beyond to Christian provinces of Byzantium (ex. Serbia, Bosnia, etc.) was impossible to maintain profitable trade between East & West Italian cities started losing their empires (ex. Venice was now a part of Turkey) -Mohammed II attack on the Italian peninsula (Turks held part of Italy for over a year) seemed Turks would sweep all of Christianity out of the Mediterranean -after Mohammed II, there was movement on part of suppressors to attack fellow Islamic nations around Turkey, & one by one those nations fell (ex. Persia, Syria, Egypt, then expanded by sea into North Africa) Luther’s revolt in 1517 in Europe, but outside Europe the Turkish Empire controlled ark around Mediterranean, challenged Christianity (Christianity itself was being challenged from inside & outside) 1485-1559: Ottoman Empire tripled in size (European felt degree of fear) -Turks established military posts & control in Balkans, from which they moved North & from Suleiman the Magnificent they started moving to Balgrave (Europeans new Turks would have almost nothing in their way) King Louis of Hungry & military forces gathered to stop them, but the Turks annihilated them (almost entire Christian army was slaughtered, 1526: nothing to stop the Turks) -Turks began to move into Austria, 1529: laid siege to city of Vienna (was too early for Turks to succeed in expansion, supporting the enormous army, so siege was broken & central Europe was just saved) -1529: Christians had no idea how dangerous the situation was -1571: Christian victory in Lepanto stopped the Turks (even then, it wasn’t the end at all) -Turks tried again in 1680s, more sophisticated Turkish army laid siege to Vienna again, but only w/ coming of King of Poland that broke siege & saved Europe -siege in Vienna had v. positive effect: Turks had set fire to their portable city so it wouldn’t fall into hand of Christians: smell of beans coffee entered European imagination as a consequence, but bakers of Vienna began to ma
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