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Lecture 25 - Congress of Vienna.doc

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University of Toronto St. George
Kenneth Bartlett

HIS109Y1- Lecture Twenty Five Congress of Vienna January 9/2013 1804: Francis II was the last Holy Roman Emperor; he dissolved the HRE and created the Austrian Empire (smaller) and became Francis I - Napoleon reorganizes German states into the Confederation of the Rhine in 1806. - this began as a union of 15 states but expanded to include almost every German state except for Austria and Prussia - France believed they were liberating their conquests however this created resentment against France - this also awoke the German national conscience which began with writers, artists and intellectuals that looked for folk tales and traditions which were common to all German people - similar developments occurred in Spain & Italy; they appealed to a common language and culture to push back against French rule - the awakening of this nationalism made it hard for monarchs to re-establish themselves after the defeat of Napoleon - Napoleon’s attempt to invade Russia in 1812 was the turning point towards defeat - he decided to invade because Russia challenged his rule (Russia relied upon exporting grain to England which Napoleon was trying to blockade/Napoleon was trying to take Poland away from Russia) - Napoleon retreated from Russia in Oct. 1812 because they were not used to fighting in Russian winters - he lost a great deal of of his army which gave Prussia the capacity to create a new coalition against Napoleon - the coalition wins the battle of Leipzig in Oct. 1813 - Napoleon was exiled but returned for 100 days until his final defeat at Waterloo in June 1815; then exiled to St. Helena - the 100 days return occurred during the Congress of Vienna - Louis XVIII (heir of Bourbon) was restored to the throne in France - the Congress met in September 1
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