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Lecture 18

Lecture 18 - The Scientific Revolution.doc

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University of Toronto St. George
Kenneth Bartlett

HIS109Y1- Lecture Eighteen The Scientific Revolution November 14/2012 F. Bacon (1561-1626) Rene Descartes (1596-1650) Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) N. Copernicus' De Revolutionibus (1543) Isaac Newton (1642-1727) John Locke (1632-1704) Tabula Rasa - changed the relationship between man and nature - instigated by: Bacon (writing between 1620 and 1640) and Descartes - They asked: How do we know anything? How do we make observations? - pre middle ages, people relied on the deductive method where we start with the first principles/assumptions and then apply logic to it - Bacon and Descartes argued this system was backwards; truth and knowledge should be the conclusion not the starting point - this meant all the knowledge up to this point should be re-evaluated - Bacon was a politician but Descartes was a philosopher and mathematician who believed in theoretical imperial observation - "I think therefore I am" -Descartes - apply quantified, objective evidence to everything so that we all understand we are talking about the same thing - Descartes wrote the Discourse on Method which gave the platform for the scientific method - he gave Europe a new vehicle for gaining knowledge (not affiliated with the opinion of any church or king) - structures of church & state stood against this revolution ie. Galileo - interested in planetary motion; built a telescope and changed the relationship between men and the universe. 1609, published a book which showed Jupiter had moons, and that the moon wasn't smooth (challenged that God made only perfect things). This got him in trouble with the church. Deduced that the planets revolved around the sun. Called before Roman Inquisition in 1616, asked to stop teaching his findings. Kept writing anyways. His work was printed as an over sight by the holy office, He was given 2 choices: say everything he wro
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