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The Church.docx

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Kenneth Bartlett

The Church 9/26/2012 12:05:00 PM Curia Previ Rota (1250s) Plenitudo Potestatis Babylonian Captivity (1305-78) Great Schism (1378-1417) Constance John Hus  Look at the Roman Church structurally  Huge amount of land—there was power associated with the control of the land—church.  Until the reformation, there was only one recognized church in the Western Europe—Roman Catholic Church  The issue of sovereignty was very powerful during the middle ages (Middle ages: Medieval, 5 —15 thcentury, usually marked from the collapse of HRE to the Renaissance) —since the Roman Empire collapsed, collapsed with the sovereignty—who had the authority to rule. There are two sources of sovereignty—one was the belief that all secular rulers inherited Roman Imperial Power of the Western Europe; the other was the sovereignty of the church  There was by the end of the 700-750, Constantine decided to move the capital; because the pope ..Constantine decided to gave the church to the pope—the ―donation of Constantine‖. (It was a forged Roman decree in which Constantine transferred the ruling authority of Rome and western Roman empire to the church. It was composed probably in the 8 th th century, and used especially in the 13 to support the claims of ruling power of the papacy) Because of this, the pope believed that he had the right to rule the country secularly, as well as to rule spiritually—a double power.  The donation –beginning of the papal sovereignty  By the middle ages, there was two sovereignty—the concept of dual sovereignty. This was the problem—it was against the mind that they were looking for a clarity—Guelph (papal) / Ghibelline (the imperial party)  The two sources of power fight continuously. The two sources saw themselves mutually exclusive.  By 13 th century, this debate became constant open warfare—everyone was born either Guelph (supporting the pope) or Ghibelline (supporting the imperial power)  The greatest claim to religious power –one pope claimed that he had Plenitudo Potestatis—complete spiritual and secular power of the pope  (a term used in medieval to describe the jurisdictional power of the th papacy. In the 13 century, the term is used to characterize the power of the pope within the church. However, during the 13 thcentury the pope's plenitudo potestatis expanded as the Church became increasingly centralized, and the pope’s power expanded into legislation, judicial, and finance.)  It was however something else to actually deliver power. He wasn’t able to deliver power as his successors.  The church rule in wealth and power, because the ability to organize and attack almost any other organizations in the West–it was like the first centralized gov’t after HRE  The court of the church became extremely important –because if you swear something to be true, you could be charged  The church had a standard means of procedure ; also you believe that if you go to the central court, it was fair. So more and more cases was applied to Rome, there was the Rota (1250s)—the central court / the religious court itself. It was a good source of income to the church.  The creation of a central tax system was so effective.  The church felt that it had the right and also the structure in place to collect tax from everyone in the church.  The pope asked every church man to give ¼ of the income—it was not a lot of money, but the principle was made. In just 20yrs, the pope was collecting 10% of all the incomes.  It was the first institution to collect income tax from its citizens.  Church had not only the right to collect tax, but the right to exercise power. It was a powerful instrument.  The pope had the right to appoint a religious person to any kind of religious job—it was hard to deliver—bad communication, local society.
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