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january 16th history lecture.doc

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Kenneth Bartlett

History: Industrialization 2 th -Britian agricultural revolution of 18 century allowed them to industrialize -agr. Revolution is switch from subsistence farming to large, centrally managed profit farms that sell to market, farmers experiment with new crops especially with crops from the new world, with crops that replenish soil instead of drain it -Jethro Tull experimented with use of manure -agr revolution meant less ppl needed to produce lots of food -enclosure = before there were commons for general use, 1750 legislation allowed enclosures which let landowners personally take common land, large farmers expel small farmers and create lots of products to sell to market. The farmers who lost land due to enclosure migrate to the cities and become cheap labourers -Britain now has a young labour force. The force is also healthier, less diseases, more reproduction, etc… Inventions -inventions like these in addition to brit’s natural resources and social factors led the way to increased cotton production which was important to industrialization -spinning jenny increased productivity -coton gin allowed production of cotton in large quantities -brit manufacturers became more dependent on cotton -this need for cotton perpetuates a system that caused America to have slaves -cotton and iron industry created increasing demands for power -need fuel for industrial practices -steam engine most important, used in 18 century to pump water out of cold mines, this guy named James (last name?) made it so that steam engine could be used to drive other machines -steam power = can build factories away from water sources -technological improvements and steam engine based factories allowed factory system to show up and replace the work done at home -this creates an unskilled, not needed to be trained labour force -labour is cheap, easily replaceable, unskilled -social changes -industrialization wasn’t just economic transformation -lots of urbanism, lots of births and less deaths, etc,…. -most of history = agr. Productivity placed ceiling
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