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Lecture Notes: September 24 - February 16 Title says all. Some days are missing/incomplete. 95% of them however are there.

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Kenneth Bartlett

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HIS104Y1 Lecture Notes September 24, 2010 February 16, 2011 European Civilization September 24, 2010 - 400-700 population of Europe declined dramatically (barbarian invasions, increase in disease, collapse of the Roman Empire resulted in the decline in roads, food transport, etc..) - No desire to experiment with technology or improve yield - Plow was replaced with a new plow with a wheel on it, which allow more land to be grown to cultivation. - Knights would eat meat because it was a prominent food of the time. - Europeans were a malnourished race, subject to illnesses and physical problems - Medieval farming was a cooperative venture, people lived in villages not in separated farms. - A portion on the manor was designated as the lords dominion, whatever was grown on this portion would go to the lord, the rest would be split between the peasants that worked on the manor , which meant the lords wouldnt have to pay them, and in return the peasants would get food and security. Peasants had to be bound to the soil as serfs. - This provided the peasants a stable place to work. For it to work everyone had to remain in place. At least being on the manor there was security, and security of job, and enough food to feed themselves and the family. If something happened there was no inequality, if the agriculture was bad, it affected all the serfs, not just one. - The land was split in really narrow strips for the peasants to ensure that one peasant wouldnt get all the good land while another peasant would get the bad land. - Shared farming, one peasant themselves could not pay for a plowing team, it was all cooperative, one peasant may pay for the oxen, one for the plowing, and one may do all the plowing themselves. - Village was self-sufficient, there were churches, there were priests, blacksmiths that got paid with food, a communal mill to make bread for the peasants that would have access to cause they couldnt have one in their places. Instead of money, food and labour was exchanged. - Most of Europe was Conservative, change was feared (it was a voyage into the unknown, which could endanger their family, you understood that this is how the world worked and just stuck with it) - As much land as possible around the towns were cultivated - New lands had no customary rights that bound peasants to the soil. Work was hard, people would run away to new manors where they would get better treatment which in turn would have to make them lose things like security. - New manors would offer things like building and cultivating their own land. - Towns became less self-sufficient and the lord of the manor would get profits by the peasants cultivating their own land and giving a portion of it to the lord as a tax - There was a kind of bidding war between new and old manors, based on the idea that peasants stay with old customs or go to a new manor where the customs dont apply. - Money from peasants gave nobility that owned the manors made them more sophisticated and allowed them to buy horses, jewels, armors, and even pay for architecture, unlike before where there was no money. - It became needed for the nobility to have to stay on the same social footing as the other people on the same class by buying jewelry, armors, horses (social status was based on what you owned like a competition). - Trading exploded to get things like spices and exotic foods in the Crusades. - Once the things like jewels, armor, animals, etc became a definition of social status, everyone wanted to get them or else theyd be declining in status. - Nobles would even go to debt to get the things to get them a higher social status. - Nobles would instead of getting food would start getting cash payments and getting mortgages and loans on the land to pay for the things. - When they started taking out mortgages they started noticing that incomes remained stable while prices rose greatly, which created inflation. People started not being able to pay for things. - SEPTEMBER 27, 2011 HIS109Y1 Key Words Peruzzi Medici Fugger Florin Ducat - The crusades stimulated long-distance trade. - Support systems stimulated trading states - Service trading brought about trading with other groups - Piracy and trade are essentially the same thing, just gone about with different means - In 1348 there was the outbreak of the black plague. Plagues and disease happened all the time, but nothing like the black plague, where 50% of the continent died. - For the first time since the collapse of the Roman Empire there was a labour market. - All of Western Europe after the plague was a different place to be. There was a difference of business organization and structure and sustained higher growth. - The idea of enterprise and business became really powerful creating bigger cities. - Helped create a whole new class of townsman, bourgeoisies, rule them, challenge the old lords, and still make money. fundamental, revolutionary movement that permitted people to do things differently. - Initially merchants had to spends a lot of time away, sailing to other continents and countries. - The style of early capitalism was risky by bringing money with them and goods back. It was limited to how much a family could amass to trust to bring back the goods that are paid for. - What is needed then was an enforceable contract. - Several men would poo their money to say buy spices from the east. One without the capital would agree to sail to the place to do it. One person would insure the venture. Then a contract would be made that would ensure a fair split of whatever was gained. - This gave them the ledger to make them rulers of the town or city, because they were the people who made the decisions. - It gave the opportunity to the poorer merchants to get a bigger return and a venture to see how other societies work, an education per say. - Urban merchants were not fitted intot he third estates, nor were they fitted into the second estate - The success in business led to new expansion to urban growth because more capital activity was in the city. - Since more capital was being made, there was need for more outlets. - Bankers use the surplus money to make loans and make money off of them off of the interest. - Anyone with any extra money would often loan their money instead of saving it to get an interest from it and make more capital. - More and more people put up their money with the merchants and soon became bankers. Cities became rich, and these bankers became really rich. - The collapse of the two banks are two great examples: o The great bank of Florentine banked from both side rd Edward the 3 , king of England realized that he owed a lot of money. He was controlled by no one, so essentially he said he would not pay them. He defaulted on his loans and the banks collapsed because of it, and thousands of others that were dependant on these banks. A depression struck because of it. - The black death was as aweful as it was because of these bank failures. The general health and nutrition of Europe declined because it was not readily available anymore. - Your status in society would meant hat you would marry people who are as rich as you are. - Mechanisms were invented to help the economy. - Made each branch of their companies a company of themselves, so if one fell them all wouldnt fall. - Use of letters of credit were used (checks), so robberies werent as bad. - Lines of credit. - Roman law was reinstated because no one knew how to deal with cities. - It was believed that rural feudal life was the way to live. - Everything like docks, roads, transportation, etc fell under the rulers watch. - Towns would grant taxes to allow them to hire protections. - Kings would give them protection from thugs who threatened them. - Kings would give them a charter. - Kings would take all of the fragmented states and put them together into powerful states where law would be the law of the King. - HIS109Y1 September 29, 2010 Key words: Curia, Provisions, Rota (1260s), Plenitudo Potestatis, Guelf/Ghibelline, Babylonian Captivity (1305-78), Great Schism (1378-1417), Constance, John Hus - 1 recognized church in religion (Roman church). - To not be catholic you were not a member of society. - If you were a Jew or a Muslim you were outside of the community. - Institution was really powerful; it was deeply grained in with the economical and social structure of society. - Ending the sense of political sovereignty (end of Roman empire) - The question was where did power reside after the collapse, the church was the co-ruler of the empire after Christianity was recognized as the main religion in the Roman Empire. - Document that gives rule of the Latin to the pope. Proved to be a forgery but people believed for it to be true. The pope had the power to give sovereignty. - Two types of sovereignty in the west, the people sovereignty and the divine, known as the Guelf and imperial power was known as the Ghibelline. - 12 and 13 century, pope Plenitudo Potestatis, claimed the fullness of power, the completeness
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