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Political Ideology and the Middle Class Jan 27.docx

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Victoria Wohl

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HIS 109 January 27, 2014 Ideology of Middle Class Liberalism and the Middle Class • John Locke’s second treatise of government o Written in the 17 century, they applied to the 19 th o All liberals like to quote his treatise o Adopted as examples of people responding to tyranny • 1911-Liberalism o Civil liberty: basic liberalism  No civil society when there is arbitrary power  Individual men and women must be always protected from arbitrary aggression  Liberty is the result of constraint  All citizens may be free, not just the strongest or the richest  People who talk most about freedom are talking about theirs and not yours o Economic liberty, taxation is necessary in a civilized state  Those taxed must agree to that level of taxation and that the taxes are being collected and monitored properly  Expenditures must be monitored  Taxation must fulfill the desires of the whole  Instrument by which policy will be achieved o Freedom of thought and to hold opinions and express them freely in action and thought  Religion is a personal liberty that must be protected but it also has to be subject to restraint (freedom of speech etc.) o In a free society there are limits to everything  Idea of having restriction is important  Levels and distinctions that every free city must argue o Basis of social liberty  The mandate for self improvement to increase your wealth and social position, knowledge and skill set through education o Education should be available to all citizens o Freedom of trade, right of any citizen to participate in any transaction- freedom of the marketplace  Freedom cannot be absolute, if freedom were absolute then there would be cartels (against freedom of trade)  Trade unions, if a union controls all the workers in a nation say that they are going to strike that too is a restraint of trade  Complicated issues, negotiation amongst various aspects of freedom  Role of government to ensure that the marketplace functions freely o Domestic liberty, role of the man or woman in the family  Women must have equal rights in the exercise all their rights without any infringement based on their sex  Freedom of children to develop healthfully  Marriage is a legal contract  Both parents are responsible for their children o Racial or national liberty  Imperialist vision complicated the idea of individual personal freedom  People outside western Europe thought it should apply equally to them  Do the people in colonies have the same rights as an Englishmen  These rights do not apply to those outside the white imperial nations  Functioning on two sets of rules  Utopianism, eventually in time these subject people will develop into little models of Englishmen, so consequently they will eventually grow and become more like the English o Liberalism is opposed to warfare  Prime platform of tyranny  All things must be sacrificed to victory o Popular sovereignty  Liberalism is progress  There is a movement towards freedom  Strange view that history will solve it’s own problems is inherent to liberalism o Legislative functions of government must be responsible to the whole o Parliamentary democracy in liberal form guided by enlightened opinion by citizens can eventually create utopia  Means that the other restrictions that we have to assume will in fact guide us towards the better future  Community can behave un-liberal, that they can convince others of wrong things  Re-evaluated by the best members of that society to make sure that it never happens  Government is necessary to make sure that the nation works, but also that no evil will rise that would challenge this liberal view of progress and a happy world • Liberalism was put in place by government experience • Became an active ideology and the platform of political parties • Civilized set of ideas and morally attractive • Idea that we can improve the lives of others and protect our rights collectively according to common principles • Became the operative ideology of 19 century nations • Why did it fail so miserably in Germany and Italy? Middle Class Movement • Bring more people into government and it will be fairer and more just • You have to achieve your authority, not born into it • Dedicated to the principle of responsible government • Electorate has to monitor it’s actions • Political parties that dominated the European continent had specific elements that pertained to their own environment England • Great Reform Bill of 1842 o Franchise was extended o Not just to landlords of great estates o Parliament became more representative o Population shifts of the south and east meant that the same problems began to occur again-unfair elements of representation o Corn laws were reasonable, tariffs on imported food and the lan
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