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European Civilizations HIS109.doc

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Peter King

September 17 Lecture Outline FeudalismTermsComitesComitatusFiefVassalFeudalismIIntroductionaImagining FeudalismththbFraming the period 9 century13 centurycBorn of an infinitely troubled epochIIThe Structure of FeudalismaLand as poweriThe lord and the manor thiiFragmentation of Europe following the fall of the Roman Empire 5 centuryiiiRights of the lordbVassals and FiefsiSwearing of fealty1symbols of fealtyiiGranting of a fief1Various types of fiefsaHouseholdbGrant of landcGrants of moneydEcclesiastical fiefsiiiFeudalism as a systemIIIThe knightaCodes of conduct and emergence of chivalrybViolence as a class privilege cOrigins of feudalism military serviceiComitesComitatus Lt companionsarmed groupcomescount comteiiImportance of personal bondsiiiTechnology and feudalism stirrup horse and armourdThreats to Western EuropeiMuslim invasion from Spain Battle of Tours 732iiGermanVikingMagyar incursionsiiiFrankish responseIVPublic Power in Private HandsththaGoverning of Western Europe in the 11 and 12 centurybEstablishment and extent of feudal administrationiLocal struggles between lords1Disseisin unlawful taking of landcFeudalism in Western EuropeiNorman France and the spread of feudalismiiLords vs King Magna Charta 1215iiiRevival of Roman Law and the establishment of royal courtsVConclusion The roots of monarchical governmentLecture NotesThe Feudal System 8001215oKingThe Crown The Church BaronsKnightsFreeman and SerfsFragmentation of Europe led to the establishment of smaller communitiesBorn as a troubled epicLand meant power key to the power within nobility within EuropeLand could be converted to money easily rent more accumulation of landPeople who owned land had the right to judge people on the landLords could ask serfs for free labour People on vassals would provide military service to LordsLords also held political as well as legal power they had a jurisdiction county dutchy they would hold that power inThey has wealth status armsLasts feudal state left is an island stark off the british coastLand is granted by a great lordLand being given instead of money money not in wide circulationKnight would serve the kind whenever necessary and in turn will receive landLarge land owners could raise 500 to 600 knights for their serviceLand depended on how many nights were in your serviceThief given to knight when oath fealty swornVassal agreed to serve the lord the lord agreed to protect the vassalFief could grant large amounts of land a place in the kings household higher position in the kings court money when the crown had available money to give jail people had to pay to go to hail and to get outFeudalism can be seen as a militaristic or something intertwining with the churchFeudalism also represents form of government provides structureSmall groups of elites are beginning to take form possessed political and economic power and large amounts of land over time they will get names such as lords duke NobleLand was not hereditary could go back to the crown after the vassal died but often the son could work out a deal with the crown to takeover the land because the crown always needs protectionFlourishing culture because of the money the nobles invest into it art literature architectureEmergence of code of conducts for knights to behave a little better in the kings court after they come backChivalry code between knightsExpected that the nobility would fight in the defence of the king as well as themselvesA number of private wars took placeBonds between wealthy men are very important emperor and military command client patron relationshipGroup of armed men To go to waroWarhorseoChainsth9th and 10 century land is becoming very important in retaining such a systemThis system starts to extend the feudal system in EuropePower becomes centralized under great lord in the Charlemagnes empire once he dies this empire begins to fragment once moreWe have a rise of a professional class KnightsKnights ha different levels of land and money and powerSome can be very wealthy and rich some have no land at allPowerful lord kept legal title to the landWhen the king was weak the vassals tried to get more power strengthen their hand in landsCollective relationship beginning relationship between lord and vassalVassals have great deal of power in their jurisdictionsPublic power rests in private handsIt can work for the better or the worseA strong king can give power to a weakling working for the worseMedieval kings are primus inter peres first among equals they are not divine Monarchy they can be removedth11 century these lords are becoming powerful on their own and begin challenging the king as well as other lordsCastles were established in order to protect these landsCastles became represteative of local power and local lordsthth11 and 12 century another fragmentation is happeneing because status of lords is strengthing and they are becoming more powerful they begin to take land from other who are weak took daughters hostage to marry sonsKnights who did not have land would clock to these lords or they would become administratorsEventually these lands will become hereditary and will be passed downFeudalism spreads quickly across EuropeStruggle between lord and kingMagna CartaoKing not acting the way he should be and lords make him sign a charter certain set of rules to live bythDevelopment of this nobility they will remain well into the 19 centuryththContinent needs to be brought together beginning in the 12 and 13 centuryIntroduction of courts kings want to solve problems between lords through the courtCreation of a legal system that helps centralize European statesLengthy process struggle between king and lordsth13 century in its purest form is begginign to disintergrate feudal lords are no longer neededBastard feudalism just pay people to come fight for youDecline of Feudalism and Rise of Monarchical StatesoImprovements in communication education and in the economic sitation of wester EuropeoGrowth of townsoCentralizing example of the roman catholic churchSeptember 19 Lecture Outline Manorial EconomyIFoundations of the manorial economyaAgricultural and Western EuropePopulation Decline to 950plagues invasionsroads communications started to decline as wellDevelopments after 950significant innovations in agriculturepeasant life gets better records keptpopulation increase after Viking invasion people did not have to fear for their lives anymore started to reproduce productive nature of the feudal system production of more food increase improvement in diet of individualspopulation increase levels in 1300 before black deathintroduction of harth tax tax on the homeexistence of documents of lease holdsintroduction of wills
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