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Realignment of Europe.docx

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Kenneth Bartlett

Realignment of Europe Trying to make sense of this fundamental change in the human condition by the 16century mind of the th 16 century condition Very different mindset after the reformation; prinicples and ideas that would take on a life and drive certain societies and civilizations Creation of new states, states coming together because of shared values and foreign oppression Virtual dissolution of old states Look in more detail to these fundamental changes: result of instablitiy or causes of instability Not only was Europe internally unstable but instability was being thrused upon this continent from outside  solved by tradition method, warfare These things are so profound and deep that when there had to be a resolution the war would be unspeakable, very very long to allow Darwinian concept of the strongest to prevail Forces working on Europe from outside were strong as well  shift of power from the Mediterannean End of 15 century, that tradition shifted, mediterranen became just a particularly dangerous place, Turkish Atlantic Sicos  new centre Cause of this shift are complex, very significant Great trading cities of Italy became rich and powerful because of the trade they made with the rich countries, such as the Byzantian empire, things Europeans wanted Rise of the Islamic states, great deal of pressure on European and Byzantine empire Crusades  statement about power, long-distance trade Europe developed economically as a result, was able to spread economic wealth, they developed the instruments that would allow this wealth to be cultivated, beginning on financial, economic empires, powerful states such as Venice Creation of institutions and vehicles that allowed for things like credit, that would allow economies to grow, cities to grow, Everything began to fall apart end 14 middle 15 century, great catacism, Fall of Constantinople Large empire of sophisticated civilization falling to the “infidel”  what was happening? Was Europe slipping into second place? Eventually all of the Byzantine empire fell into the hands of the Turks, connections and trading collapsed with it, all of the speacical relations, Turks took their spot. Natural result of the Ottoman empire was war  only way to protect your trading conventions War was inevitable. Christians lost, Turks were great military power and also had zeal of expansion Sultan Mohamed the second, expansion went into the christen provinces of byzantine (greek pensinsula) halfway through the 15 century Without this ability to protect European trade it was impossible for them to sustain this trade between east and west, the great Italian cities began losing their empires Not even Italy itself was safe  Mohamed the 2 attack of Italy was dramatic more than real : turks held part of Italy for over a year, terrified everyone Turks had invincible armies and invincible navies Inevitable for Christianity itself to be challenged by the Turks After death Mohammed the 2 , change of idea, attacking Islamic nations around Turkey (Persia, 1514, Syria, Egypt 1516-1517), expanding by sea into North Africa Put into Context  year of luther’s revolt, 1516, Turks controlled an arch all around the southern mediterannean, his revolt took place when the whole of Christianity was being challenged Seemed as though the mediterannan was gonna become Turkish, most powerful state in western Europe, amazing degree of fear held by the European. Turks began to move again against central and eastern Europe, moved north from the Balkans Obvious to the Christian forces in Europe, threat to the whole, centre of Europe. Creation of large, multinational army, financed by Pope, Church, Empire, Hungary, all gathered to stop the turks Battle of Mohacs (1526) entire army was slaughtered, nothing at all to stop the turks from going everywhere or doing anything they wanted Mobile Turkish army moved quickly, into Austria, heart of Habsburg empire, sieged Vienna, it was too early for them, they were not prepared, siege broken and Europe was spared for the moment We know how difficult it would be for the turks to do this, but we didn’t, they didn’t know how dangerous Great Christian victory of Lepanto (1571), it wasn’t the end at all, tried again in 1680, a larger much more sophisticated Turkish army sieged Vienna again, only with the coming of the King of Poland that saved western Europe from the Turks (portable city turks) Living part of the European imagination almost won, still there, visible in literature and culture Siege of Vienna had positive consequences  COFFEE and coffee culture Bakers of Vienna began to make a pastry representing the turkish symbol, a cro
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