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The english civil war and the realignment of Europe.docx

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Kenneth Bartlett

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The Realignment of Europe October-29-12  3:09 PM  New classes created  Mohammed II (1451 - 81)  Sulieiman the magnificent (d.1566)  Mohacs (1526)  Lepanto (1571)  Granada  Vasco da Gama  Many changes happened in Europe : new countries, different religions  Some new changes were a result of instability, while others caused instability o Reiterate : Europeans would solve things by warfare - it was there resolution  Forces working on Europe from the outside were also profound  There were shifts of power taking place o More around the mediterrean  This would change in the 15th Century, as the Atlantic sea coast was where trade would take place and the Mediterranean sea was becoming part of Turkey  Venice and Genoa - became rich Italian trade cities due to trade in the Mediterranean  Pressure was being put on the Byzantine empire  Italy - developed economically and was able to spread there wealth throughout the continent o This was the beginning of financial empires  Facilitation of trade was more than just money o It created intuitions and vehicles which would allow the northern Countries to grow o This began to fall apart however in the 15th century  1453 - Constantinople fell to the Turkish people  Eventually, the byzantine empire was divided into provinces  The monopolies that had been generated and wealth generated by the Byzantines was gone  Only way that the trade would be war, however the Turkish defeated the Christians very easily o Sultan Mohammed II  Ottoman expansion  Serbia and Bosnia would come under the control of the Ottomans  Parts of Greece had been taken control off o Trade between east and west stopped o Genoa and Venice began to fall  The Trading cities of Italy were becoming part of Turkey  Would attack the Italian Peninsula  The Turkish people were able to keep parts of Italy for a full year o When Mohammed Died, Turkish policy changed  Attack other Islamic countries  Persia, Syria, And Egypt all fell the Ottomans  They would control an Arch around the Southern Mediterranean  Eastern and western Mediterranean was under control of the Turks  1485 - 1559  Ottomans expanded Dramatically o Suleiman the Magnificent  Captured Beligrad  Was the base in Europe  Catholics and Europeans were worried about this  Major Military force, with Hungarian army leading o 1526 - they were slaughtered o Turks had the ability to go anywhere o Moved into Austria and Laid siege on Vienna  However, the Siege was broken, and Western Europe was saved  1529 - Christians had no idea how dangerous the situation was  1680's - Turks once again tried to capture Vienna  Only with the Coming of Poland was Vienna saved o However, Vienna had one benefit  It started the coffee movement  Also, the croissant was created from the Siege  Therefore, the shift of power to the Atlantic Seaboard was needed o New taxes and duties were needed o Mediterranean was still a very Dangerous place o Simple fact - Travelling through the Mediterranean was not profitable practice, along with dangers  They needed to find new routes to get Spice and other Substances  Wanted the Luxuries of the East o Portugal - Began to look for Alternate routes to find these things  They wanted to see if Africa had an End  They had navigators to make maps  1486 - The cape of Good Hope was rounded, proving that Africa had an end  1497 - 1498 - the Portuguese went to India, Created trading posts in Lepanto, and Europeans would now acquire goods o Christopher Columbus (Croatian who lived in Italy )  Convinced Ferdinand that he could create a quicker route  He didn't discover the east, but found the new world o Spain - was getting wealthy from the Colonies  Middle of 15th Century  Castile and Aragon of Spain were united by the Marriage of Ferdinand and Isabella o They shared Roman Catholicism, and it would be the reason why they would stay together  Muslims - Began to get hated in Grenada o Christians had fears of Islam because of the Turks o The Spanish Christianity was a way to unite themselves - they were on the front line, and were the defenders of Religion  They would drive the Moore's from Grenada and the Muslims  New Kingdom of Spain used every element of Spain  Jews were also driven out of Spain - this was because of the new ideas in Spain  Iberian Peninsula ??  Habsburg Empire would have long rule o Had Holland as there center of economic Activity  There was a shift in the money centers of Europe  Were Placed in the north, Such as Holland and Germany  1485 - Amsterdam was the Busiest port in the World o Proved that all power had Shifted to the North  16th century o New economy began to happen o New continent and the driving out of Moore's was a massive change o Europe was completely Changed  Which country would call the Shots ?  Habsburgs, French, or the Lowland Countries ? o War was going to answer th
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