October 20, 2010
Reformation in England
- Monarch is head of the Church as well as the state
- Centralized monarchy
- Succeeded to uniting the monarchy
- Attempts to try to control the Church of England but in most part they were a part of the
- Relatively secure place.
- Henry the 7 – House of the Tudor
- 1485 – Brought to the thrown a very conventional king – spent heavily on the Church
- 1500 – English Church was very confident and secure.
- England was known for their monks and religious houses being very rich.
- This enormous wealth had an effect on the English Church.
- Colin was a great performer. – got into a lot of trouble – founded a school.
- The Church was dominated by one man who doesn’t follow the highest calling – Cardinal
- Henry the 8 was lazy and let Wolsey to do all the work and was the king’s Chancellor.
- 1520’s England is known for its mediocrity – no great examples of virtue and goodness.
- Kind of attacks against the ecclesiastical order started to weaken the structure.
- This vast property owned by the Church were in Mortbane – (dead hand) it was in debt.
- There was negative publicity.
- 1520s - attacks against ecclesiastical order (Erasmus etc.) began to weaken the already weak-
- Vast property owned by church - once property had been acquired by church, you can’t get it
- Rising nobility - wanted more land, but church owned it
- Printing - Erasmus and other people’s works made these ideas spread more quickly
- People were also more aware of what was going on (i.e. Corruption)
- Role of pope in England = suspicion
- Babylonian captivity - put papacy under control of French; seemed like English taxation was
used to fight the English during 100 Years’War (not true, but it made people suspect the Pope be-
cause they thought there was a bit of French in him)
- Church courts: papal system - had own courts etc - Canon law = everywhere (almost everything in life had something to do with it); took a long
time to get stuff done – canon law was everywhere – so expensive and took so long, the people
that had to deal with it hated it
- Ideas which drove people who were very difficult began to question the things that everybody
took for granted.
- 1511: Richard Honey
- Part of group with mistrust for clergy
- Was charged by priest for having to bury his dead baby
- Richard got angry and hit the priest
- Priest had Richard arrested
- Richard was found the next morning dead (strangled)
- The only people who had access to him was the CHURCH
- Case of Richard Honey = universal
- Anti-clericalism - reached a climax with Martin Luther’s revolt (~1520)
- Difficult to stop it - his ideas were very popular
- King (Henry VIII) was not happy
- He wrote a document defending the Church, saying Luther was wrong
- Pope Leo X gave Henry VIII a title for it (protector of the faith)
- Henry hated Lutherans, Reformation (believed it would disrupt the fabric of the state)
- Things changed - Henry married his dead brother’s wife (Catherine of Aragon)
- Tudors didn’t have deep roots having the crown => needed a male heir
- Henry needed a male heir (having a female ruler had proved not to be stable in the Middle
- He believed he was in the incestuous marriage: older brotherArthur was married to Catherine
to make an alliance to Spain (and get a HUGE dowry). ButArthur died, and Henry VII didn’t
want to g