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[6] Reformation in England.doc

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Kenneth Bartlett

October 20, 2010 Reformation in England - Monarch is head of the Church as well as the state - Centralized monarchy - Succeeded to uniting the monarchy - Attempts to try to control the Church of England but in most part they were a part of the Catholic Church - Relatively secure place. - Henry the 7 – House of the Tudor - 1485 – Brought to the thrown a very conventional king – spent heavily on the Church - 1500 – English Church was very confident and secure. - England was known for their monks and religious houses being very rich. - This enormous wealth had an effect on the English Church. - Colin was a great performer. – got into a lot of trouble – founded a school. - The Church was dominated by one man who doesn’t follow the highest calling – Cardinal Wolsey - Henry the 8 was lazy and let Wolsey to do all the work and was the king’s Chancellor. - 1520’s England is known for its mediocrity – no great examples of virtue and goodness. - Kind of attacks against the ecclesiastical order started to weaken the structure. - This vast property owned by the Church were in Mortbane – (dead hand) it was in debt. - There was negative publicity. - 1520s - attacks against ecclesiastical order (Erasmus etc.) began to weaken the already weak- ened structure - Vast property owned by church - once property had been acquired by church, you can’t get it back - Rising nobility - wanted more land, but church owned it - Printing - Erasmus and other people’s works made these ideas spread more quickly - People were also more aware of what was going on (i.e. Corruption) - Role of pope in England = suspicion - Babylonian captivity - put papacy under control of French; seemed like English taxation was used to fight the English during 100 Years’War (not true, but it made people suspect the Pope be- cause they thought there was a bit of French in him) - Church courts: papal system - had own courts etc - Canon law = everywhere (almost everything in life had something to do with it); took a long time to get stuff done – canon law was everywhere – so expensive and took so long, the people that had to deal with it hated it - Ideas which drove people who were very difficult began to question the things that everybody took for granted. - 1511: Richard Honey - Part of group with mistrust for clergy - Was charged by priest for having to bury his dead baby - Richard got angry and hit the priest - Priest had Richard arrested - Richard was found the next morning dead (strangled) - The only people who had access to him was the CHURCH - Case of Richard Honey = universal - Anti-clericalism - reached a climax with Martin Luther’s revolt (~1520) - Difficult to stop it - his ideas were very popular - King (Henry VIII) was not happy - He wrote a document defending the Church, saying Luther was wrong - Pope Leo X gave Henry VIII a title for it (protector of the faith) - Henry hated Lutherans, Reformation (believed it would disrupt the fabric of the state) - Things changed - Henry married his dead brother’s wife (Catherine of Aragon) - Tudors didn’t have deep roots having the crown => needed a male heir - Henry needed a male heir (having a female ruler had proved not to be stable in the Middle Ages) - He believed he was in the incestuous marriage: older brotherArthur was married to Catherine to make an alliance to Spain (and get a HUGE dowry). ButArthur died, and Henry VII didn’t want to g
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