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Lecture

[1] Feudalism, Manorialism & Economic Change.doc

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Department
History
Course
HIS109Y1
Professor
Kenneth Bartlett
Semester
Fall

Description
September 20, 2010 Feudalism: fragmentation of political power - Necessary to ensure authority/govt after breakdown of Roman Empire - Landowners provide materials to ppl who live on the land - Prestige + power: monopolized by small group who were able to rule - Land = power - Power = not power, rather control of land - Whoever owned land = they judged people who lived on that land, had right to seize control land, right to claim military assistance (they could send serfs out to fight in war) - Emperor in Rome may have in theory exercised some control over tracts of land - Important: where you lived, who ruled the land you lived in - Power becomes personal possession, rather than abstract responsibility - How could someone who owns a piece of land have the right to rule people who lived in that land, just because he owns the property? - Public power in private hands = essence of feudal society - Someone had to protect/govern the people with the collapse of Roman Empire so bar- barians wouldnt pillage th - 8 century: invention of stirrups: maintain balance and protection on horse (enables fighting on horseback) = military advantage - Training on horseback + stirrups etc. = provide protection to other people ---> had wealth (owned land), provided protection and govt - Above developed into nobility -- knights (were trained from childhood to provide securi- ty): class of professional warriors - Large areas became fragmented b/c they needed security, some form of government - Landowners had to provide justice, upkeep/services (fixing roads, castles) - Public order --> becomes private responsibility (landowners) - If you have power, wealth --> you use it to suit your needs --> redefine problem of social fragmentation --> turns it into a solution (take nega- tive and turn it into positive) - Model of society: everyones roles have to be defined: do they have power? Do they have rights? - 3 orders/social groups (estates) of society in Middle Ages - Estates = states of being - Functionally defined (by occupation/birth) - Rationalized by religious people: your class is divinely ordained to achieve a purpose --> Gods plan is here; we have to work it out - Premodern Europe: religious, social, economic = all together (cant separate) 3 ESTATES 1. Clergy - paved mans way to heaven 2. Nobility - protection 3. Regular people that enabled clergy + nobility to live in leisure by living in toil --> pro- duced surplus produce to satisfy clergy + nobility - Growth of towns --> bourgeois emerged - Nobility: emerged to provide protection and govt in absence of Roman Empire - Created culture that endured Medieval Nobility: professional warrior ---> identified by how they fought: on horseback - Foot-soldier could not stand up against knights - Knight: responsible for every aspect of secular life - Basis of power (ownership of land) = hereditary (as well as power and prestige) - Rank, political power, dominance = became hereditary - Write rules so that people who arent part of elite can feel they want to be part of it, and if they cant they can at least act like it (social mobility) - Set of rules + behavior based on chivalry = very popular - Chivalry + code of action, follow set of rule: implies peace because violence and inse- curity is gone (people will follow rules) - To begin to access caste marks (where you fit in society - status): the way you be- have, the way you dress, the objects you own - (above) visible signs of your success- More sophisticated knights needs were, they travelled to Jerusalem, Constantinople to see things they couldnt get at home (Scotland) --> acquire new stuff to heighten status and power - Stuff came together to create noble class (you have a lot of stuff => youre noble) - Nobility: social, economic etc. elite Clergy: - Defined by function, manner of life, privileges - Subject to own legal system -- Pope, not subject to lord of land - Had different set of rules - Rank was not determined by birth - Poor could rise, most talented could rise to highest ranks - Church possessed land - Majority of upper clergy (possessed lots of land) tended to come to nobility - Not homogenous group - Real power: bishops + archbishops - Great local po
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