September 29, 2010
Guelf - Papal power
Ghibelline - Emperor power
- Catholic Church: only church in Europe
- An institution that encompassed the whole society
- The Pope had double authority – One of the great crimes in history
- Adocument that the rule of the Latin West was to Pope Sylvester – This was a forgery but was
believed to be true for 600 years.
- The Emperor was secular but turned into a God when dead.
- Wars between emperors and popes about who has the most power. The Pope won in the early
period over the emperor.
- What is the more prevalent to this is who will deliver.
- The fullness of power – said by the Popes – The right to depose kings and princes and can do
anything I want because God is on my side.
- Rota – court of appeal. This becomes an institutional structure that recognized the church’s
power. Allowed continual appeals. – needs a standard procedure. – This gave rise to a standard-
ized process in Canon courts, and need to be used effectively.
- The Pope could be the final judge in Rome.
- The laws were good but money was better – There had been a Papal tax office to tax the people
who for example didn’t go to the Crusades would feel guilty and gave money to the Church.
- Eventually the Church instilled a tax (income tax) on the clergy. He needed the money to fight
- In just 29 years it increased the tax to 1 tenth of their income
- The first institution since the Roman Empire to collect taxes.
- Papal revisions – in 1265 the Pope had to replace the clerics, so the Pope said he had that right.
Then the pope had the right to appoint bishops that he so chose in all of Christendom.
- The Pope said he had the right to appoint priests anywhere.
- The Pope was able to reach into every corner in Europe. - Popes were delivering on their power.
- “All churches and the possessions of the churches are in the Pope’s power” – from Canon law
- In order to run the huge legal systems and so on you need a bureaucracy – What are they
trained in? – Law and finance – making the offices less religious. Spirituality became irrelevant.
- Roman church puts itself together to reach out to every part of European life
- Collect taxes, legal authority, absolute power + authority
- Pope claimed that b/c God is on his side, he can choose king, can do whatever he wants, etc.
- Unless he can actually do it (deliver), it’s just talk (claim)
- When popes put institutions (church) together, their authority stretched out b/c of no distinction
b/w church and state (enormous influence over: legal matters, etc.)
- HQ of church in Rome
- Standardized process in church-run courts --> pope can exercise power as the head judge over
any court in Rome (cases can be appealed to the Pope in Rome) => money & power gives you
means to deliver
- Church’s ability to collect taxes: money (dangerous: more in “this world” - physical - than “the
next” - spiritual)
- There were those who felt like they should have gone on the Crusades felt guilty and they paid
the Church (accumulated a LOT of money)
- Income tax on clergy: pope needed money to fight the emperor, collected a portion of the
- By 1228: 1/10 of all clerical incomes was supposed to go to the pope (used in different ways)
- Pope could reach into every corner of Christendom (Europe) and exercise power
- Right of pope (central power of church) to fill any position of power in church (e.g. replace
dead clergy) --> i.e. they can appoint anyone they