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[4] Northern Humanism.doc

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Kenneth Bartlett

October 13, 2010 Northern Humanism - The Italian cities were very different from others of different cities around Europe - Towns continued in the North – separated by larger distances. - Those who made their own wealth, responsible for the secular life of the community. - The ideas in Italy were sympathetic. - It was necessary for the clergy to be educated unlike the others. - In the North the intellectual were separated by the ignorant. - The culture of the North was dominated by religious ideas – very Christian) - The collection between Italy and Northern Europe. - This new mercantile elite was becoming more and more wealthy and intellectual. - 1480-1490's the powers ofAtlantic Europe tried to find ways to reach the East. - 1) 1453 - Byzantine empire fell to the Turks - now part of Islamic world. - 2) It was dangerous and more expensive to go - In Vasco Degama - The voyages of discovery changed Europe - There was a whole new place to study. - Everything they believed to be true were proven wrong. - There was no proof that there was something out there. - What else didn’t the ancients know? – if they didn’t know this what else did they not know? - Maybe its our responsibility to fill in the blanks and make our own kind of world. - Europe was a dramatic place especially Northern Europe – ideas that were mildly. - Made a huge group of people questioned what they knew. - Desiderius Erasmus - Born the illegitimate son of a priest 1466 – 1536 – Educated in one of the new schools. Became classical scholar. - The more he learned about Christianity and the books that he was editing – The Priests and Church being corrupt and vicious – wanted change. - Advocated a much simpler religion – simple message of the New Testament – Wrote – Praise of Folly – 1509 – speech from an academic – praised all of the things wrong with the world – Cardinals, etc… very funny. - Unstable environment – weakened the Church. - Indicated to people something was wrong with the Church. - Gutenberg – moveable type – changed everything – made access to information more easily available – books were more reliable. Made these new ideas available to the unstable. - These urban townsmen bought the books, read them. – revolutionary effect. - Erasmus had access to literate and educated Europe - It was a satyr - The Revolutionary year was – 1560 – publication – Nobum Instrumentum – His new Tes- tament – Jerome made fundamental mistake in translation. One of the sacraments of the Church was a wrong translation. The gospel of John – in the beginning was SPEECH not word – speech reason and the soul – ability of speech, reason, and souls. - Erasmus was challenging the text of the Bible – new Testament – people agreed with him - The Revolution began with his new Testament - but another book was part of the revolution - Thomas More’s Utopia - Thomas More was a secular politician – lawyer. - Henry the 8th chopped his head off. - More was secular but spiritual. - Wrote the book – Utopia - in the first instance describes England and the things wrong with England - The second part was about an Island where the irrational and uncharitable are reduced to a criminal offense and humor – new literature – utopian literature – a blueprint for and idealistic society. - There was no Christianity in Utopia – but the principles that make Christianity are there. - More is making a blueprint of revolution. - Blueprint for an abstract world. - Would bring down government - should not exist to make the poor poorer and praise the king – it exists to make the greatest good to the greatest number. - Invention of Italian renaissance to access antiquity (to make sure the writings of antiquity were copied out without mistakes) - e.g. textual editing, philology - Intellectual instability: clergy in N. Europe applied these skills to elements of Christian Revela- tion (i.e. Bible etc.) - Shocking to reveal the “Word of God” had errors/typos => texts themselves were WRONG - Desiderius Erasmus (1466?-1536) - became great scholar; did editions of classical bib- lical writings • Dispute between what he saw written and what he saw in the Church (the clergy weren’t following scripture) • Began to make fun of all the problems he saw in the Church: The Praise of Folly • Written as a speech that praised everything that was wrong with the world: wrongness with the Church, poking fun at the structure of Church • People realized the problems of the Church, problems of culture of N. Europe were REAL - 1450- invention of printing - Access to information = more easily available, all copies of the book are the same (no errors to be interpreted to the reader) - Urban merchant tow
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