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[8] Realignment of Europe.doc

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Kenneth Bartlett

November 1, 2010 Realignment of Europe - Creation of Dutch confederacy - New social organizations, new political ideologies - Religious + economic + military threat - Economic shift: Mediterranean to Atlantic coast - Changed nature of continent - Shift world from “centre of world” (Mediterranean) toAtlantic sea coast - Rise of mercantile economy, confidence, sophistication = came from great sea powers in Venice etc. making money by trading with the East - Contact with sophisticated, monied society of Islamic world - Demand for luxury goods (slaves, carpets, silk) - spinoffs for managing this (ship buildings, in- surance) - This made states of Italy rich -- renaissance - Something shattered Italy and Europe: 1453 - constantinople fell to ottoman Turks (broke con- tinuation of roman empire) - End of 15 c - Islamic Turks grew to be most powerful country - Natural result of ottoman victory: constant, violent war (economic, religious) - Christians = not as well-favored as Islamic Turks in the war - Christians were unable to stop Muslims from expanding to the West - Mohammed II (1451-1481): the conquerer -- conquered steadily westward, seemingly in- vincible - Trade + territory taken by Turks - Italy didn’t escape -- Europeans were terrified (seemed like this would happen to the rest of the peninsula) - Turks were getting close to Rome - Seemed like Ottomans would drive all Christians out of Mediterranean - Mohammed died - changed policy: successors decided to invade Islamic states and subjugate to ottomans (Persia, Egypt) - 1516-1517 - Lutheran revolt, Ottomans had territory -- Balkans to NorthAfrica - Terror of state that became most powerful in western world - Invincible army, ships can’t be captured - Seemed to be divine judgement: if god is a Christian god, why is this happening? God must be using the infidels to punish us - Recalibrate Christianity (**time of reformation) - Turks established position on southern coast of Mediterranean - moved to eastern Europe - Suleiman the Magnificent (d. 1566) - Battle of Mohacs (1526) - annihilation of Christian army (nothing to stop the Turks) - Reached Vienna: 1529 - sieged capital of Hapsburgs but siege was broken because they stretched too far (geographically) for resources to expand to permit them to successfully siege nd - 2 siege: 1683 - once Turks left portable city (Vienna) they burned it (so Christians couldn’t use it) - They smelled a nice smell (coffee) while the city burned - Bakers made a pastry in the shape of the Turkish symbol (crescent moon) --> croissant - Shift of economic and political military power = not an accident; Christians were pushed more west to be more secure, establish new economic links --> power moved with them - All negotiations made by Italians with Byzantines evaporated --> had to pay Turks higher taxes etc. (lost money) - Lepanto (1571): first Christian victory against Turks - Sea trade driven by Mediterranean powers (venetians, Florentines, Portuguese) - Mediterranean trade = too expensive - Prince henry the navigator (Portugal) - sent ships out farther and farther out each year to dis- cover more and crusade (thought there was a Christian kingdom in centralAfrica) - Exploration = successful (but didn’t manage to drive Turks out - intention; Portuguese and Spanish became navigational experts) - Portuguese went farther than romans - Could you go aroundAfrica (did it end?) - Vasco de Gama - sailed around to access India to get to China (directly fromAtlantic sea board to get to each) - Spices could be bough
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