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[9] Thirty Years' War.doc

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University of Toronto St. George
Kenneth Bartlett

November 3, 2010 Thirty Years’ War - Aftermath of religious wars: overall restructuring of balance of power - Which power would be the most powerful (which would be most powerful country) and which would be subservient to them? - Had to be Europe-wide war - Drew boundaries - Introduce new ideas - Balance of security - Make Europeans stop thinking religion was what bound them together --> power of dynastic monarchy - Balance of power = shifted dramatically, creating new great power (France) - Rise of Lutheranism = resulted in wars, realignments, confessional and political adjustments - Need for new kind of way to determine allegiance - 30 Years’War broke out in an attempt to look at religion as power of national identity; state bound to 1 religion (metaphor: people wanted to live independent) - 1618: broke out in Bohemia (Czech Republic) - First continent-wide war - 1609: Hapsburgs attacked Hussites - Bohemians were told they could practice unique form of Protestantism by Emperor - When Emperor died in 1617, new Emperor (major Catholic), Ferdinand would not permit this at all - King did not take father’s throne automatically -- people would not recognize new emperor and chose Frederic as the King of Bohemia - If Bohemia is permitted to leave Hapsburg Empire (HRE) -- it will dissolve - Czechs threw imperial ambassadors out the window - Bohemenias received a lot of help form other protestants -- dutch, Transylvanians - Though hapsburgs had a lot on their side: cathilic support in bohemia and all around - Hapsburags received a lot of momey to hire soldiers to fight bohemians - 1620 BATTLE OF THE WHITE mountain - czechs were slaughtered, all Protestant lands cap- tured to be distributed to other caltholics - Defeat of protestants and successo f catholics - ferdidnanr decided to force catholicism on ev- eryone - Jesuits were brought in to reconvert bohemians to catholicim - It seemed ferddinand had everthibf: haspbug power was unapposied in easarten euprope - Protestants treied to bring people together as a revolt -- suppressed - Albert von wallenstein (1583-1634) • Born a hussite (Protestant) • Converted to catholicsm • Married older, richer widow who died (and he got her money) and remarried to get more money • Used money from wives’dowries to buy land formerly from protestants (confiscated) • Hired thugs to work for him (as private army); didn’t pay them but let them take whatever they wanted from villages they pillaged • Result: highly disciplined professionaly mercenaries - King (frerdidnad) made wallenstien his general to fight protestants - Vicious army wreaked havoc all over - 30 yrass war = so eterrible because of vcious merencetaries - No difference b/w private property and that which was “free game” - Ferdidnanrd decided he would not only be victrous in this -- he would be victiorus in religion - Edict of restitution: everything since 1552 had to be returned to church (tried to undo protestant reformation; turn euerope back into cahtloc state) - Savior of Protestantism: princes of germany (catholic + Protestant - mostly c) -- got ttogethe and decided they have to do something or they’d alll end up under fanatic catholic hapsburg rule - Princes approached ferninad and threatened to vote for a non-hapsburg unless he got rid of wal- lenstein - Hapsburg = obsession with dynasty (emperor was elected by a council) - Wallenstien was fired but was not out of comission with his army (he was so rich) - People wre alarmed with centralization (united, centralized state out of HRE) that ferdidndand tried to miporse and create -- would be the most powerful on continent - King of france (louis xiii)/coucillor was most afraid -- cardinal richlieu - France would result in weaker of affairs - Richilieu made deal with swedes -- continue war against hapsburgs - GustavusAdolphus (d.1632) = king of sweden - Was fanatic lutheran-Protestant and turned his state into efficient miliary power, new technolo- gy, united by religious zeal - Took control of protestant cause - Paid by french - Great general, led army - Emperor was terrified
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