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[10] Absoulutism.doc

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Kenneth Bartlett

November 10, 2010 Absolutism - Wars of religion destroyed France: calvinist (huguenot) vs. Catholic - 30 years war: most christian king of france fights hre - Rise of france as great power on continent at expencse of spain and italy - Central authority can use advanges to weake others - France became model of regime - Richlieu used power to save protesants so they would not become a HRE state - Henri iv killed because of traffic jam, killed by a mad monk - Richelieu made sure france would not be ruled by house of hapsburgs (netherlands, HRE, spain) - Assassination of henri iv --> policies of richlieu saved coun try from falling apart - Louis xiii - young son (8 years old) of hneri iv - Marie de medicis = mother of louis xiii; ruled as regent - marie = lived for self-gratification, didn’t like son, wanted to keep him as far away as possible, had italian favorites (one of whom, coccini robbed the crown completely) - Louis = secrecy, distrustful, not so great - Gaston d’orleans = brilliant younger brother - Louis had coccini executed, wanted to take control of crown instead of mother (but wasn’t smart, subtle, etc.) - France = impoverished - Money spent on war with huguenots/calvinissts (didn’t go well) - La rochelle = capital of huguenots - Many of commanders louis could command were dead - Louis needed someone to help guide nation that was in bad shape, prove himself a good king, keep mother from being queen - Armand Du plessis de richelieu - could ask king for anything and get it - Was a second son; given good education, promised to church (older brother went around killing small animals) - Age 21: his father convinced henri iv to let armand become a bishop (but canon law prevented someone becoming a bishop until 23) - Armand went to rome to see pope (had good connections) - Lied to pope that he was 23 and impressed the pope with latin speech --> pope allowed him to be bishop - Once he was bhisop he said he sinned (for lying to the pope); pope was like “oh well” - Only ticket to future fame: ideal reforming bishop - Organized education of clergy, did everything so well was considered boy genius - Impressed those responsible to elect estates general (like parliament) - Elected 1 esate of clergy - Caught attention of conccini - Employed as secretary to crown - Looked like he would have a good career - 1616-1617 - queen was banished from coutrt by louis - Richlieu was at a disadbancge -- lost job because worked for queen and conccini - Seen as a threat because of intelligence (1618); banished to avignon (at that time not part of france) - Queen, loathing her son, decided not to put up with son as king with no influence on her part - She tried to restart civil wars that tore france apart - Only person king’s advisors could think of who could reason with the queen and switch sides for own advagnate -- richelieu was called - Louis told him to tell queen to stop making war and come to my side - Richelieu wanted someting out of this (was exiled) -- got reward - He wanted a cardinal’s title (prince of chuch) - 1624: chief minister of the crown - Louis had no advanges but birth -- though realized his disadvantages and was willing to find someone to help him rule - Allowed Richelieu to do what he wanted in the name of the king in order to unify the kingdom 1. Control huguenots/calvisntst (they live in their own “state”) -- reduce their authority - own capital (la rochelle) - sea port with access to other Protestant states - Ignored king’s will if they didn;t like them - Richelieu distrusted anyone who would destroy unity of france and act as “trojan horse” and have protestants overpower - Richelieu knew something had to be done, even though he didn’t have the money’ - Declared (costly) siege that starved them - October 1628: huguenots had to surrender to him after a year of siege - Walls of la rochelle had to be torn down but property of calvinists were property of the sta
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