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[15] The French Revolution.doc

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University of Toronto St. George
Kenneth Bartlett

December 1, 2010 The French Revolution I A- R Turbot C. De Canoe Noblesse de l’epee Noblesse de robe Hobereaux Cahiers Bastille - 1789 - Most significant event in european history at the time - Break off practices and ideas --> new ideas driven by enlightenment by writings of philopsphes - Like enlightenment perspectives -- became europe-wide revolution - How did ideas of freedom, natural human rights -- became a new type of tyranny? - what did france look like in 1789? - Archaic, vestige of feudal past - 25 billion people divided in 3 estates: nobility, clergy, people - Clergy = least numerous - R.c. Church = unattractive choice for career - Fewer than 1/2 of 1% of the population were clerics - Few churchmen controlled about 10% of land -- excempt from taxation and badly cultivated - Some still practiced serfdom -- ideas of englightment not taken seriously in countryside - Lord clergy - came from community which they served - City church offices - from nobility - Great clergy (bishops, archbs) - came from greatest families from france --> 2 , 3 , 4 sons… - Didn’t visit their lands --> wanted to live @ Versailles, be at court (more fun) - Clerical living didn’t appeal to aristocratic clergy - Faithful catholics were angry at aristocratic clergy that they had to give up their efftos to sup- port their lifstle - Church would freely grant a certain amont of money to king -- just becaue (and to ensure clergy’s protection --> protection money -- so tey could do what they wanted) - Privileges and practices were infuriating - 400,000 noble class - Owned 1/4-1/3 of all land in kingdom - Land given to them for knights who became landholding nobility (some form of gov’t & pro- tection) - The power, privileges had been taken away by louis xiv to restrain their authority -- stay at ver- sailles (left estates to vicious bailiffs who sqeezed everything out of serfs) - Nobility = divorced from people who paved their ways - Great distance between people who supported the nobles and the nobles who took money from them - Top: noblesses de l’epee (nobles/kights of the sword) = ancient families w/ close connection to the crown (privilegs and power @ court) --> originally feudal lords - Could ask favors from the king if they needed some help --> eclusice privilege to people with immediate access to king - Great names to sell: could sell one of surplus sons to daughter of bourgeois or someone with huge dowry (sell titles for more money) - They were arrogant, awful, disdainful to anyone who wasn’t noble - Noblesse de la robe = lesser nobility - Had purchased offices w/ patented nobility -- bought the title from someone by taking over someone’s office (purchasesd office w/ nobility attached to htme) - Anxious to be accepted by old noble families - Tried to compete w/ style of life and attitudes (conspicuous consumption, selling off kids for money) -- but usually were more enlightened b/c came from bourgeois familes who were educat- ed esp. in enlgightement ideas - Old noble ways + rational - Hobereaux (sparrows) = poor nobility - People who lost their status - Lived in isolated chateuxs , couldn’t dress propertyl enugh w/ no pretty clothes - Everyone hated them - nobility were ashamed of being in the saem class; peasants hated them b/c they sqeezed their money out - 3 estate - 95% of france’s population -- about 80% worked the land (20% - laborers, middle class e.g. ar- tisans) - Tales of misery - mostly exaggeration - Feaualism and serfdom = not abolished but worn away b/c of richelieu and louis xiv --> most peasants owned a portion of their land - Except for some poor country areas and church lands -- kept to it - Very few peasant holdings were large enough to support the family - Each individual plot was small -- but were able to sell crops to the town for money, could grow vegetables - Often people are oppressed b/c wouldn’t change themselves - French peasants were very conservative -- wouldn’t use new faming technology, wouldn’t change the type pf crops they grew - Increased longevity, increased survival rate of childten -- increased their population (tradition- ally had a lot of kids to work the land) - Overpopulation - not enough money to buy land; angry that they saw nobles’and clergy’s land uncultivated -- they thought they could do a better job - Disadvantage of peasants - huge: they had to pay huge taxes (e.g. Pay taxes to fix roads you live near; pay taces for services church did; manorial dues [e.g. If landlaod said you have to pay old taxes set in 14 c. But are outdated, you pay) - They wanted fair taxation -- equal distribution - Bourgeoisie = 8% - Skilled artisans --> lawyers --> enormously wealthy int’l merchants, usually successful in en- tering nobility - Infected by ideas of enlightenment (most philops[hes came from) - Hated ancien regime b/c unnatural (tho idid’t suffer like peasants) --> restrictions on trade - Anger, resentment in every class in france -- directed to govt’(downside of absolutism) - Royal officials who collected taxation --> all leads back to palace of versailles - Wide gap b/w governed and governors --> no way to address their problems to someone, parlia- ment hand’t met since 1613 (louis xiv) - Negative side to central, absolutism --> king is at fault - Louis xvi - great gransodm of L.14 - Read emile --> became locksmith - Wawn’t so smart - Marie antoinette (hapsburg princess) - not so concerned about the state, cared more about her friends, meddlesome - Louis 16 - loved marie antoinette - King always yieled to queen -- put in her friends in important positions - Kingdom was approaching bankruptcy - There wasnt enough mone to balance the books --> partly b/c of taxation methods, but also structure of life under ancien regime (rich pay nothing, poor pay too much) - Louis 15 - crown could keep things afloat by borrowing - Louis 16 - helping amraicn colonists to fight in american rev. = vey expensive - Higrer interest fees, too much debt - Something had to be done or else crown will run out of credit - Loiuis decided he would choose phiosophe as finance minister a.r. Tourgot - Tourgot thought he would be successful -- limit the amount of money courtiers ( i.e. Queen) spent - Radical reform - saved monarchy - Measures of austerity (above) alienated nobility - you mean I have to pay taxes?? - No more monopolies from nobility on trade (like in england and netherlands) - Tourgot was fired because marie antoinette didn’t like him - Credit of monarchy had evaporated - no one would lend money - 1786- c. De colonne hired - Only by taxing nobility and clergy can france escape debt - Assembly of notables - only 2 estates meet --> told them france would go bankrupt w/o taxing them - Clergy & nobles wouldn’t agree b/c nover had to pay taxes - Ran to estates genereal to get him to agree - August 1788 - estaes general (like national parliament) summoned -- even though it hand’t met in over 100 years; all rules and restrictions half forgotten and wouldn’t work - Had to make changes for economics -- 3 estate had to be recognized as more inflienceial (had 2x the amout of reps than other 2) - Voting by class not votees -- impossible for change - 1788-1789 - harsh winter (people froze and starved), inflation of prices, poor wanted funda- mental reform - cahier= statemens of grievances - Project of fundamental constitutional reform -- order in french society - Knew that to have change, voite by head not class - Arguments made to king -- inspired by rousseau - 3 estates = rep. General will of people b/c a hige majority rd - June 20, 1789: doors locked in esstaes genral (accident but 3 estate thought king was snubbing them) - Went to a tennis couty -- tennis court oath - King had read rousseau- force he could not reject rd - 3 estate became parliament - write constituuons, legislate (national assembly) - July 14, 1789: paris mob driven by untrue rumours that king woud attack them with army, at- tacked bastille (symbolic of absolutist powet of fraecnh crown - feudal) - Interrupted rational discussion of bourgeois lawyers who defended peasants --> had to take into account the passion of the mob - Tend of mob violence moved to the countryside -- moved by rumours, peasntats destroyed feu- dal records, burned landlords’houses and landoards - Oct 5 - mob of women marched to versailles -- food riots (paris to versailles) “let them eat cake” - Broke into palace, took roual family to paris -- monarchy left versailles forver - Revolution, source of sovertnty -- in hads of the mob - Mob in control - Taking out royal family -- symbolic end of ancien regime December 6, 2010 The French Revolution II Assignat Jacobins Girondins Maximilien Robespierre Directory Ultramontanes vs. Gallicans Napoleon Bonaparte - Revolution was underway - not necessarily visible --> estates general which became national assembly - Stripping away privilegs of
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