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Lecture

[16] Napoleon.doc

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Department
History
Course
HIS109Y1
Professor
Kenneth Bartlett
Semester
Winter

Description
January 10, 2011 Napoleon - Only solution to Fr. Rev = war - Against a set of ideas represented in Fr. Rev in France - Even more progressive startes = crusade against france - Property rights, etc. - You had to be an aristocrat to fight in military -- many aristocrats left the country to fight for other countries --> leaderless country - Armies = divided by same factional disputes that destroyed gov’t - Unpaid soldiers - Still managed to stop prussian forces despite lack in training etc. - French army managed to drive invading soldiers and enemy fleets out of harbors - One of heroes: napoleon - Napoleon Bonaparte -> steadily became Fr.. Emperor - Unsurpassed genius as administrator - 1804: crowned himself emperor -- emperor of french people (new group representing itself as a people and a set of ideas of what it meant to be french) - Distanced himself from ancient bourbon monarchy - Saw his crown not granted by god or heredity -- but believed he was granted the vorwn by grateful people - People craved stability as well as glory he brought to france -- subdued enemies - All enemies of france defeated - and humiliated and savaged by the most brilliant military lead- er - Only england was undefeated -- because napoleon couldn’t imagine war at sea --> france lost warships to english fleet - They didn’t want any additional conflict on english channel -- led to his defeat because he couldn’t drive england out - He wanted to engage in new form of warfare: continental system 1806-- tried to block england off of any kind of support from allies - It was the model in strategic planning --> but could’t work in early 19 c. --> can’t close off continent, still many smugglers - 1812: invaded russia and was annihilated by russian winter; sent back with defeated men - French armies were then defeated in other areas: spain, salamanca -- deafeats of napoleon’s generals - 1813: napolean was defeated in germany - Aura of divine fortune evaporated -- only stall national alliance that tried to add france - 1814: napoleon abdicated; bourbons took back crown and he was taken to elba in isolation (tame) - Battle of waterloo - 100 days - Last 6 years of his life were less confortable --> sent to s.Atlantic, stormy place and died - Napoleon = remembered as military genius - Also: greatest administrators of modern europe --> took ideas of men of enlightenment and turned them into clear laws and regulations that last today - Code napoleon 1804: his mind made sense of french law, church law, roman law - became basis of legal system - Bourbons left his system - stands to today - Created french system of education -- also to today - Designed secondary schools - ensured 6400 places reserved for poor boys (usually they couldn’t afford higher learning, and he wanted talent of all classes to be used for state) + made scholarships - 1813: france had highest number of higher education - All decisions had to be centralized - one great failure --> couldn’t make economy competitive - Napoleon - mercantilist - 1801: made peace with church --> r.c. = official religion of france, but not only one to be sup- ported - Making peace w/ church = spiritual comfort --> reconciled émigrés who thought messing with religion was BAD - Since he allowed catholicism to be practiced = people liked him - Protected jews -- those outside of civil society were welcomed in without any social etc. preju- dices - Kings removed by french - first replaced with republics but after he became emperor in 1804 and made them into kingdoms -- usually his relatives became kings (e.g. His brother became king in naples, then promoted to spain)
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