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[17] Congress of Vienna.doc

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Kenneth Bartlett

January 12, 2011 Congress of Vienna - Restoration and Renewal - rev began reasonably - reasonable change - After change happens - became uncontrollable - Napoleon changed earth -- redrawing map, intro of ideas that couldn’t be eradicated (military prep, code napoleon=legal system that spread across continent --> organized system of law that allowed country to operate independently) - Danger to established orders vs. Into of new admin system (new monarchy b/c of popular au- thority) and intro of change of ideas (code napoleon = in effect in several countries) - Centralization of Fr.. Gov’t - Napoleon became part of collective unconscious - What to do when napoleon was defeate? How to incorporate all he did to those who lost a great deal, how to deal with france? - what was france? Dangerious place of revolution or something else? - Napoleonic wars = overshadowed fears around rev - After 1804 - napoleon embraced monarchy, recognized social privilege + aristocracy --> coun- teract worst evernt of terror and revolution to make new form of monarchy (something people could understand, feel comfortable with), back to ancien ragime - Napoleon = seen as good too - How to deal with complex moment -- france was eligible to return to having europen monar- chies - Influence of revolution & englihgtmetn -- across europe - Influence of Fr.. Rev & napoleon --> every state on continent was affected and influenced - Nations that tasted freedom, new form of political institutions (holand, sw germny, italy) -- you couldn’t ignore them/suppress them - But how? - Impossible to turn clock back to 1789 (couldn’t restore old world b/c gone) -- rest of euripe & france - Rev changed french people, constitution, etc. - Rather than go back to what was, create something new based on concepts, principles, values of monarchy, form of stabliliy (NOT iddas of revoltion) - Solution: same as 30 yers war -- gerneal euro peace conference - France = brought in as european state --> there for negotiation, not for punishment - France = represented by prince of Talleyrand - He became prist then bishop; rev came --> politician, chief minister of louis 18 th - Survivor and indicated france was a survivor -- told people how ideas of rev, enlightenment were able to be good if interpreted right - No representative of hre - but now austrian empire Congress of Vienna 1814-1815 - in new capital of new austrian empire - 3 open principles: 1) compensation for victims 2) legitimacy - kings and princes who were driv- en from thrones in rev were to be recognized as having claim on throne 3) instrument of balance of power -- no one country to overshadow all and become mostrstous th - 4 : secret one - no punishmet of france, but ensured as member of new order and player in or- der th th - Restoration of house of bourbon -- louis 18 (brother of louis 16 ) - Louis 18 1814-1824 - If there should be punishment of france (invasion, et.) would mean instability of house of bour- bon - France - important and central role in congress - admitted into euro society - Final defeat of napoleon @ waterloo - frane had to pay some money, lost some territory it was permitted to keep as agreed in congress (back to 1789 boundaries) -- but not in dangerous way th - Luouis 18 was advised not to turn clock back to ancien regime b/c world has changed --> im- possible to go back to what france looked like in 1788 - King advised that he should recognixa and leave intact some liberal reforms --> can’t turn france back to absolute monarchy - France = constitutional monarchy - Louis = not gifted ruler but had element of common sense -- realized he had to compromise and took advise of where to do so - Constitutional charter = very liberal --> past and history of ffrance was recognized as legitimate - Advised he shouldn’t have witchhunt for radicals and have show-trials - Emigres wanted revenge but louis was told (and agreed) that revenge dones’t work - Royalists and conservatives in countryside who suffered terrivlt during terror couldn't’be stopped --> white terror against pp. Who abused them for 20 years (jocobans) - Once king felt
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